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Mark Lefsrud, Dean Kopsell, Carl Sams, Jim Wills, and A.J. Both

significant decrease in lutein and β-carotene was measured in daylily ( Hemerocallis disticha Donn ex Sweet) when oven dried at 48 °C compared with −53 °C freeze drying ( Tai and Chen, 2000 ). Cinar (2004) reported that freeze drying reduced the losses of

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, Dennis E. Deyton, Kristin R. Abney, David E. Kopsell, and Larry Robertson

). Carotenoid formation is highly conserved throughout all plant species with six primary functioning carotenoids (antheraxanthin, β-carotene, lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin) normally present in leafy tissues ( Sandmann, 2001 ). Carotenoid

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

directly inhibits the enzyme p -hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD; EC, a precursor to plastoquinone and tocopherols. The enzyme phytoene desaturase requires plastoquinone as a cofactor for converting phytoene to ζ-carotene, which

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Cristián Vela-Hinojosa, Héctor B. Escalona-Buendía, José A. Mendoza-Espinoza, Juan M. Villa-Hernández, Ricardo Lobato-Ortíz, Juan E. Rodríguez-Pérez, and Laura J. Pérez-Flores

lycopene (≈90%), β-carotene (5% to 10%) and lutein (1% to 5%), with only trace concentrations of other compounds ( Stahl and Sies, 2003 ). In recent years, the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoid, tocopherol, and chlorophyll have been studied because of

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Mark W. Farnham and Dean A. Kopsell

lutein (3R,3′R,6′β,ɛ−carotene-3,3′diol), an oxygenated xanthophyll, and β-carotene (β,β−carotene), a hydrocarbon carotene. β-carotene and also zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin are a group of carotenoids that contain two β

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Dean A. Kopsell, J. Scott McElroy, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

) hydrocarbon carotenes (C 40 H 56 ) and 2) their oxygenated derivative, referred to as xanthophylls. Carotenoids span the thylakoid membranes of chlorophyll (Chl) complexes and function in accessory roles for light harvesting, photoprotection, and structural

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Zoltán Pék, Lajos Helyes, and Andrea Lugasi

predominant carotenoid lycopene, which causes red coloration of fruits, is characterized well by a* parameter. β-carotene is an orange colorant of fruits, in which the parameter is measurable by b* in the CIELab color system ( Sacks and Francis, 2001 ). The

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David A. Felicetti and Larry E. Schrader

reported previously ( Rudell et al., 2002 ; Schieber et al., 2002 ). The xanthophylls and β-carotene were quantified at 446 nm. Chlorophyll b (chl b) was quantified at 466 nm and chl a at 660 nm. Epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, the quercetin glycosides, and

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Susan C. Miyasaka, Marisa Wall, Don LaBonte, and Alton Arakaki

Sweetpotato is a nutritious source of food. Orange-fleshed cultivars are rich in β-carotene and purple-fleshed cultivars are rich in anthocyanins, both of which are important dietary antioxidants ( Teow et al., 2007 ; Wang et al., 2016 ). In the

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Chen Jiang, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Guoying Ma, and Christopher Gunter

and noted as “rind color.” Mesocarp analyses, performed at harvest and after 7, 14, and 21 d of storage, included mesocarp firmness, pH, SSC, β-carotene content, and total AsA content. Each melon was cut longitudinally through four locations of a melon