min for partial saturation ebb and flow watering (PSEFW). Symbols are mean values for each harvest date, and lines show linear trends with time. The water use efficiency (WUE) for dry matter accumulation could be calculated from the increase in biomass
Martin P.N. Gent and Richard J. McAvoy
Alison A. Stoven, Hannah M. Mathers, and Daniel K. Struve
Department of Agriculture. Species used in this study: Acer xfreemanii `Jeffersred' (Autumn Blaze® maple), Cercis canadensis L. (Eastern redbud), Malus `Prairifire' (Prairifire crabapple), Quercus rubra L. (Northern red oak)
J. Ryan Stewart* and William R. Graves
Some buckthorn species from other continents have proven invasive in North American landscapes. Carolina buckthorn (Rhamnus caroliniana Walt.) is an attractive, native species that would merit increased use in horticultural landscapes if concerns about its potential invasiveness are allayed. Invasiveness often is associated with efficient use of water and other resources. We tested for differences between Carolina buckthorn and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) in photosynthesis, aboveground dry matter accumulation, and water-use efficiency. Seedlings were grown in columns of field soil within insulated pots outdoors for 98 days. Net photosynthesis of Carolina buckthorn was 17% to 39% greater than that of common buckthorn through day 22. This difference between species was reversed through the end of the treatment period with a concomitant increase in leaf temperature of Carolina buckthorn. Final dry weight of aboveground tissues was similar for the two species, but a greater proportion of dry matter was partitioned to stems for common buckthorn compared to Carolina buckthorn. Although common buckthorn initially had higher water-use efficiency (110 mg·g-1 per day) than did Carolina buckthorn (60 mg·g-1 per day), the water-use efficiency of both species decreased to similar values for the remainder of the treatment period. We conclude that young plants of common buckthorn do not use water more efficiently than do young Carolina buckthorn under field conditions in central Iowa. Considering the possible species differences in the relationship between temperature and photosynthesis, comparative water-use efficiency should be tested further in other environments where Carolina buckthorn might be used for landscaping.
Jim Syvertsen and M.L. Smith
Effects of nitrogen (N) rate and rootstock on tree growth, fruit yield, evapotranspiration, N uptake, and N leaching were measured over a 2-year period. Four-year-old `Redblush' grapefruit trees on either sour orange (SO), a relatively slow-growing rootstock, or `Volkamer' lemon (VL), a more-vigorous rootstock, were transplanted into 7.9-m3 drainage lysimeter tanks filled with native sand and fertilized at three N rates. N rates averaged from about 14% to 136% of the recommended rate when trees were 5 and 6 years old. More N leached below trees on SO as trees on VL had greater N uptake efficiency. Canopy volume and leaf N concentration increased with N rate, but rootstock had no effect on leaf N. Fruit yield of trees on SO was not affected by N rate, but high N increased water use and yield for larger trees on VL. Canopy growth or yield per volume of water used (water use efficiency) was lowest at low N, but N use efficiency was highest at the low N rates.
D. Michael Glenn, R. Scorza, and C. Bassett
We thank W.B. Sherman for providing `Early Amber' and the willow-leaf chimeral mutant, W.R. Okie for the seed of the segregating willow-leaf populations, and C. Cavin and M. Demuth for assistance in data collection. Use of company or product name by
John L. Jifon and James P. Syvertsen
Effects of foliar sprays of a kaolin clay particle film (Surround WP) on leaf temperature (Tlf), net gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and water relations of sun-exposed leaves on field-grown grapefruit trees (Citrus paradisi L.) were studied during Summer and Fall 2001. Trees were sprayed twice a week for 3 weeks with aqueous suspensions of kaolin (Surround) at 60 g·L-1. Physiological effects of kaolin application were most prominent around midday on warm sunny days than in mornings, evenings or cloudy days. Kaolin sprays increased leaf whiteness (62%), reduced midday leaf temperature (Tlf; ≈3 °C) and leaf to air vapor pressure differences (VPD; ≈20%) compared to water-sprayed control leaves. Midday reductions in Tlf and VPD were accompanied by increased stomatal conductance (gs) and net CO2 assimilation rates (ACO2) of kaolin sprayed leaves, suggesting that gs might have limited ACO2 in water-sprayed control leaves. Midday photoinhibition of photosynthesis was 30% lower in kaolin-sprayed leaves than in control leaves. Midday water use efficiency (WUE) of kaolin-sprayed leaves was 25% higher than that of control leaves. However, leaf transpiration and whole-tree water use were not affected by kaolin film sprays. Increased WUE was therefore, due to higher ACO2. Leaf intercellular CO2 partial pressures (Ci) were similar in control and kaolin-sprayed leaves indicating that stomatal conductance was not the major cause of reduced ACO2. These results demonstrate that kaolin sprays could potentially increase grapefruit leaf carbon uptake efficiency under high radiation and temperature stress.
D. Michael Glenn, Ralph Scorza, and William R. Okie
Poster Session 14—Water Utilization in Horticulture 19 July 2005, 12:00–12:45 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F
B. Sanden, L. Wu, J.P. Mitchell, L. Pan, and R. Strohman
51 POSTER SESSION 2E (Abstr. 109–114) Water Utilization & Management—Cross-commodity
Linda B. Stabler and Chris A. Martin
Growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of two Southwest landscape plants under various regimes of irrigation frequency was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Red bird of paradise (Caesalpinia pulcherrima L.) and blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum Benth. ex A. Gray) were grown at three levels of irrigation frequency intended to mimic a range of watering practices determined via survey data from the Phoenix, Ariz., metropolitan area. During two irrigation cycles, measurement of mid-day water and osmotic potentials, lysimetric whole-plant transpiration (T), and mid-day shoot gas exchange was made. Irrigation frequency treatments affected Cercidium more than Caesalpinia. Frequent irrigations increased Cercidium shoot length and dry weight. For both species, infrequently irrigated plants showed patterns of osmoregulation in response to drying soil. Transpiration (T) was consistently highest for infrequently irrigated plants. WUE was affected by treatment for Cercidium, but not Caesalpinia. Gas exchange was unrelated to plant growth or T. Instantaneous transpiration efficiency (ITE) was negatively correlated to the ratio of intracellular CO2 to ambient (CICA) in all treatments, suggesting that under well-watered conditions, WUE might be reduced by negative feedback effects of high internal CICA ratios.
Manuel Palada and Deng Lin Wu
Chili pepper (Capsicumannuum cv. Delicacy) was grown in single- and double-bed rainshelters and irrigated using furrow and drip irrigation to determine effect on yield and efficiency of water and nutrient application in the lowland tropics of southern Taiwan during the hot wet season. The experiment was laid out using a split-plot design with four replications. The main plots were rainshelters (single, double, open field) and the two irrigation methods (furrow and drip) were the subplots. Grafted chili seedlings were transplanted in double rows on raised beds at row spacing of 80 cm and plant spacing of 50 cm. The furrow-irrigated crop was applied with basal N-P2O5-K2O at the rate of 180–180–180 kg·ha-1 and 240–150–180 kg·ha-1 of N-P2O5-K2O as sidedressing. The drip-irrigated crop received half of the total rate applied for the furrow-irrigated crop. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in marketable yield were observed between rainshelter treatments. Highest yield (42.2 t·ha-1) was produced from the single-bed rainshelter, and crops grown under double-bed rainshelters produced the lowest marketable yield. Irrigation method did not significantly influence marketable yield, but crops grown under drip irrigation produced a higher yield than furrow-irrigated crops. Nutrient uptake by plants grown under drip irrigation was also higher (P < 0.05) than for furrow-irrigated crops. Water use efficiency was 60.7% higher in drip-irrigated plots. Results indicate that in high rainfall vegetable production areas, drip irrigation minimizes nutrient loss through leaching and maximizes efficiency of fertilizer use.