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Donald H. Steinegger

The Festival of Color is the annual plant and landscape open house sponsored by the Univ. of Nebraska's Horticulture Dept. The festival is the culmination of many water-centered activities that have preceded the festival throughout the year. Last year's September event drew over 10,000 people to the UNL Agricultural Research and Development Center near Mead, Neb. The festival was created to increase the urban public's awareness and motivation regarding the best landscape management practices for developing environmentally compatible landscapes and reducing urban runoff of water and pesticides. The Festival of Color is an event for all ages. By including the activities for the entire family, the festival draws a large spectrum of the urban population. The festival has grown steadily from 850 visitors in 1993 to 10,000 in 1998. The festival will continue to include demonstrations and talks on selection, installation, and management of turf; irrigation equipment and management methods; pesticide selection and pest management alternatives; fertility management alternatives; low input landscaping with native and adapted species; composting; and more. At the Sixth Annual Festival of Color: 1) 42% of new attendees learned how to implement water conserving landscape techniques (66% of the previous attendees implemented water conserving landscape practices), 2) 30% of new attendees learned how to irrigate more efficiently (63% of previous attendees used water more efficiently), and 3) 29% of new attendees learned how to fertilize more efficiently (actual positive behavior change was higher than the proposed change reported by first time attendees), 4) 98% of new attendees learned how to choose plants based on site/location “Right Plant, Right Place” (86% of previous attendees have improved their plant selection skills by putting the right plant in the right place).

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Allen V. Barker

native prairies, agricultural lands, and forests is discussed. Similarly, the inputs and retention of nitrogen in urban ecosystems are contrasted with rural environments and related to the carbon cycles in different systems. Chapter 6 covers the storage

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Kristin L. Getter and D. Bradley Rowe

As forests, agricultural fields, and suburban and urban lands are replaced with impervious surfaces resulting from development, the necessity to recover green space is becoming increasingly critical to maintain environmental quality. Vegetated or green roofs are one potential remedy for this problem. Establishing plant material on rooftops provides numerous ecological and economic benefits, including stormwater management, energy conservation, mitigation of the urban heat island effect, and increased longevity of roofing membranes, as well as providing a more aesthetically pleasing environment in which to work and live. Furthermore, the construction and maintenance of green roofs provide business opportunities for nurseries, landscape contractors, irrigation specialists, and other green industry members while addressing the issues of environmental stewardship. This paper is a review of current knowledge regarding the benefits of green roofs, plant selection and culture, and barriers to their acceptance in the United States. Because of building weight restrictions and costs, shallow-substrate extensive roofs are much more common than deeper intensive roofs. Therefore, the focus of this review is primarily on extensive green roofs.

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Leonard P. Perry and Lois Berg Stack

Our future horticulture students are growing up in an electronic world, and are gaining knowledge increasingly from computers, videotapes and television, and decreasingly from books and other written media. We need to understand their interests and motivations in order to determine how to market our educational programs to them. This study profiles our future students on several career-oriented factors, including their plans after high school, their academic interests, their impressions of and experiences in agriculture and horticulture, and the sources of information they look to when seeking assistance in choosing a career track. Results compare male vs. female students, urban vs. rural students, regional differences, and differences between fifth and tenth graders (critical ages in career decision-making).

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Eric T. Stafne, John R. Clark, Donn T. Johnson, and Barbara A. Lewis

Since 1997, populations of Japanese beetle have settled into some of the major urban areas of Arkansas, especially Little Rock and Northwest Arkansas, due to transported turf and nursery material. Experimental trials at the University of Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Fayetteville have sustained significant damage due to the increasing Japanese beetle population. Plantings of blackberries and blueberries were rated for feeding damage. Significant differences were observed among genotypes of both crops. Mean damage ratings varied from 0.6 to 4.0 for the blackberries and 1.2 to 3.5 for the blueberries. As evidenced by the mean damage ratings, some resistance or tolerance is present within these populations and may be exploited for improvement.

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Richard C. Beeson Jr.

This work was supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, and approved for publication as Journal Series R-10551.

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Allen V. Barker

consumers. Exposure of urban populations to locally grown food is noted through existence of community supported agricultural farms, farmers’ markets, food retailing, and institutional purchasing. Edible landscapes and community gardens relate directly to

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H. Brent Pemberton and William E. Roberson

This manuscript includes programs supported and conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, the Texas A&M University System. Mention of a trademark, proprietary product, or vendor does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of

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W.T. Kelley, D.M. Granberry, and D.C. Sanders

Hank Kemble is the only county agent role ever cast in a network television series. On Green Acres, Mr. Kemble always had advice for novice farmer Oliver Douglas. Unfortunately, Mr. Kemble's advice was usually vague and uncertain. More unfortunate is that this is the only image many people have regarding Cooperative Extension. As the last segment of the land-grant system established, Extension personnel were the last recognized as equals among faculty. The mistaken image of the county agent as a book-trained farm boy with no common sense and a government job has been reinforced by declining respect for the farming community. In reality, county agents today deal with social and agricultural issues in urban and rural communities. Agents work with reduced staffs while being educators, scientists, and administrators in addition to routine duties. Extension specialists routinely teach and conduct research. National and international recognition and peer-reviewed publications are necessary for promotion while conducting traditional duties, too. As educational requirements of agents and specialists increased, numbers of undergraduates entering Extension dropped (<1% of Univ. of Georgia horticulture graduates in the last 5 years). Georgia specialists with a PhD increased from 60% (1979) to 89% (1996). Agents with MS degrees increased from 36% (1987) to 45% (1996). Image, salary, and job security determine if Extension can attract qualified personnel. Extension was never a Hank Kemble organization and graduates must be convinced that Extension is a viable and respectable career and Hank Kemble doesn't work here anymore.

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Stephehs D. Verkade and Arlene Marturano

The Clemson University Sandhill Research and Education Center is one of four branch stations of the South Carolina Agriculture and Forestry Research System, with a mission to conduct research and extension education programs in urban ecology. The Carolina Children's Garden has been created in partnership with other state agencies, funding sources, and volunteers as a site for environmental education. Learning from gardens and landscapes has steadily decreased since the late 1940s and today the average child spends 6 hours at indoor pursuits at school, an equal number at the television or computer screen at home, leaving little time for outdoor exploration. Recently, children's gardens have been established around the county as resources to reconnect children with their environment. The 2-acre Carolina Children's Garden is an interpretive framework for visitors to experience gardening as a tool for bringing families in touch with nature, each other, and local environmental issues. A volunteer team designed and installed eight theme gardens, an entertainment stage, and picnic area as the first phase of this garden. Themes include Mesozoic Memories Dinosaur Garden, Three Bears Garden, Growing Healthy Garden, Butterfly Garden, McGregor's Garden, and Alphabet Garden. The development of the garden has generated community interest and positive media exposure, inspires lifelong appreciation of the natural environment, encourages replication of ideas, and facilitates family recreation in a learning environment.