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Craig E. Kallsen, Dan E. Parfitt, and Brent Holtz

, respectively, and the distance between rows was 5.79 and 7.32 m, respectively. At the Kern County site, the trial consisted of nine female genotypes selected from a breeding program and Kerman. All were grafted on PG1 rootstock. Ten trees of a given genotype

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Phillip A. Wadl, Timothy A. Rinehart, Richard T. Olsen, Benjamin D. Waldo, and Joseph H. Kirkbride Jr.

). Selected materials represent chance seedlings from the wild. The main goal for breeding C. virginicus is improved horticultural traits such as tree form or upright growth habit and superior flowering display. Given the wide range of this species (U

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Phillip A. Wadl, Xinwang Wang, Andrew N. Trigiano, John A. Skinner, Mark T. Windham, Robert N. Trigiano, Timothy A. Rinehart, Sandra M. Reed, and Vincent R. Pantalone

flowering trees accounted for over $300 million of total nursery sales ( USDA, 2007 ). Some of the types of trees included in the deciduous flowering trees category were crabapple ( Malus spp.), crape myrtle ( Lagerstroemia spp.), dogwood ( Cornus spp

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Naomi R. Smith, Robert N. Trigiano, Mark T. Windham, Kurt H. Lamour, Ledare S. Finley, Xinwang Wang, and Timothy A. Rinehart

Flowering dogwood is an important tree of forests and urban landscapes in the eastern United States. This native tree blooms early in the spring as new leaves unfold. The inflorescence consists of petallike subtending bracts of red, pink, or white

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Steven J. McKay, James M. Bradeen, and James J. Luby

numerous samples for each genotype, a limiting condition in the first several years of fruit production, especially in the early stages of a breeding program when genotypes are represented by single trees. The commercially successful cultivar Honeycrisp

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L.J. Grauke, Bruce W. Wood, and Marvin K. Harris

trees, selection of resistant rootstocks would be beneficial to pecan nurseries and pecan producers. The foundation clone of the USDA ARS Pecan Breeding Program has been ‘Schley’ ( Grauke et al., 2015 ). The two most susceptible seed stocks in recent

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Chunxian Chen and William R. Okie

States and maintained at variety blocks in the USDA-ARS Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory stone fruit breeding program at Byron, GA. Most cultivars were developed by U.S. state, federal, or private breeding programs; many were also used

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Vahid Rahimi Eichi, Stephen D. Tyerman, and Michelle G. Wirthensohn

comparison with other nut crops grown in Mediterranean climates, almond trees are relatively more drought-resistant. For this study we used five almond breeding lines. These genotypes mostly included the progenies of ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Carmel’, which are the

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Milad El Riachy, Luis Rallo, Raúl de la Rosa, and Lorenzo León

can reach up to 13 years under natural growing conditions ( Bellini, 1993 ). This long period is the main reason for the scarcity of new olive varieties generated by olive breeding programs in comparison with other fruit species ( Barranco and Rallo

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Mark V. Coggeshall

any formal breeding program. In the vast majority of cases, these trees were originally selected solely for high kernel percentage rather than nut yield. As a result, many early named selections are now considered obsolete ( Reid, 1997a ). Reid et al