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Le Luo, Chao Yu, Xuelian Guo, Huitang Pan, and Qixiang Zhang

R. laxa var. mollis is recorded in the Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae ( Yu et al., 1985 ) and Flora of China ( Ku and Kenneth, 2003 ). In the Flora of China , R. laxa is described as follows: Shrubs 1–2 m tall. Branchlets terete

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Shahla Mahdavi, Esmaeil Fallahi, and Gennaro Fazio

and elemental nutrient concentrations on ‘Fuji’ grafted on apple rootstocks under New York State climatic conditions Scientia Hort. 227 22 37 Robinson, T. Hoying, S. 2011 The tall spindle planting system: Principles and performance Acta

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Josep Padullés Cubino, Josep Vila Subirós, and Carles Barriocanal Lozano

assess water management practices in domestic urban gardens in Alt Empordà, 2) to analyze landscape elements, structure, and irrigation systems in relation to relative landscape water requirements, 3) to explore the characteristics and motivations behind

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Azlan Zahid, Md Sultan Mahmud, Long He, James Schupp, Daeun Choi, and Paul Heinemann

were planted in 2009. The ‘Gala’, ‘Honeycrisp’, and ‘Fuji’ trees were grown on ‘M.9’ NAKB T337 rootstock, and the ‘Golden Delicious’ trees were grown on ‘Budagovsky 9’ rootstock. These trees were trained into tall spindle architecture. The tests were

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Dave I. Thompson, Neil O. Anderson, and Johannes Van Staden

; Sparnaaij, 1979 ). Because naturally occurring polyploid genotypes are usually unavailable for breeding programs, polyploidy is typically induced through mitotic spindle inhibition or microtubule polymerization, often by exposure to colchicine ( Caperta et

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and September Wonder and added Daybreak and Morning Mist, managed as tall spindle (2564 trees/ha). ‘Rising Sun’ had the highest cumulative yield in the 2002 trial, 184 MT/ha (04-09). Daybreak Fuji had the highest cumulative yield in 2007 trial 20.3 MT

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Lailiang Cheng and Richard Raba

55-L plastic containers in acid-washed sand (pH 6.2) at a spacing of 1.07 × 3.35 m (equivalent to 2790 trees/ha) in east-west rows at Cornell Orchards in Ithaca, NY (lat. 42°26′N, long. 76°29′W, elevation 500 m). They were trained in tall spindles and

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Huicong Wang and Lailiang Cheng

(equivalent to 2790 trees/ha) in east–west rows at Cornell Orchards in Ithaca, NY (lat. 42°26′ N, long. 76°29′ W; elevation 500 m). They were trained in tall spindle (≈3.6 m tall) and had produced regular crops in the previous 4 years. Uniform trees were

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Zachary T. Brym and Brent L. Black

% nationally), but Utah outperforms Michigan in production per acre (Utah 15.8 Mg/ha, Michigan 8.3 Mg/ha; USDA, 2019 , 2021 ). This may be driven by the unique semiarid climate but also may be attributed to average orchard age or orchard management system

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Guohai Xia, Lailiang Cheng, Alan Lakso, and Martin Goffinet

were grown in 55-L plastic containers in sand at a spacing of 1.07 × 3.35 m in east–west rows at Cornell Orchards in Ithaca, NY (lat. 42°26′ N, long. 76°29′ W; elevation 500 m). They were trained in tall spindle and were ≈3.5 m tall. These trees had