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Len Burkhart and Martin Meyer Jr.

Selected cultivars of redbud (Cercis canadensis L.) and related Cercis species are usually propagated by grafting, but the success rate is low and other problems can be associated with the rootstock. Micropropagation would solve many of these problems. Shoots from a 25 year-old redbud were collected during July 1989 and established in vitro on modified MS medium. Shoots proliferated poorly with lower concentrations of Benzyladenine (BA) and high concentrations of BA caused shoot tip abortion. Similar problems with red-silver hybrid maples were solved by the use of Thidiazuron (TZ) in the medium. Established 2 cm redbud shoots were treated with TZ (0, 0.05, and 0.1 uM) and BA (0, 1 and 5 uM) in a factorial arrangement to test for shoot proliferation. After 4 weeks of the treatment with 0.1 uM TZ and 5 uM BA, mean shoot number was 4.6 compared to 1.1 shoots with no BA or TZ in the medium. Further experiments with rooting treatments will be presented.

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A.M. Shirazi and K.A. Jacobs

Near-lethal abiotic stresses, e.g., low or high temperatures, chemicals, etc., can break endodormancy prematurely and reduce cold hardiness in woody plants. It is not well-ducumented whether biotic stresses can cause the same effect. Botryosphaeria dothidea causes canker in redbud (Cercis canadensis) and many other woody plants and is one of the most limiting factors growing redbud in the landscape. Two-year-old seedlings were planted in a nursery in May 1998 at The Morton Arboretum. Trees were inoculated (n = 10/treatment) with the fungus in Sept. 1998 using the stem slit method (a slit was cut about 5 cm above the base of the trunk and the wound was covered with parafilm after treatment). The treatments were T1 = control (PDA, Potato Dextrose Agar),T2 = 1-mm mycelium plug, T3 = low spore suspension (25 μL), T4 = high spore suspension (25 μL). Stem cold hardiness was evaluated by artificial freezing tests in Nov. 1998. The mean LT50 (the temperature at which 50% of the tissues is killed) from ion leakage were T1 (Control) = -29.3 °C, T2 (mycelium): -24.05 °C, T3 (low spore) = -18.75 °C, and T4 (high) = -16.4 °C. T3 and T4, the low- and high-spore inoculation, significantly reduced cold hardiness in redbud stem tissues. The LST (lowest survival temperature) based on visual observation of the samples after 7 days indicated all Botryosphaeria dothidea-treated plants had lower cold hardiness compared to control. Endodormancy was broken in B. dothidea-treated plants after placing plants under 16 h of light and 23 /18 °C day/night temperature for 1 month after the treatment. The highest percent budbrealk was for T4 (high spore), followed by T3 (Low Spore) and T2 (Mycelium).

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Jason J. Griffin, William R. Reid, and Dale Bremer

Successful establishment and growth of newly planted trees in the landscape is dependent on many factors. Weed pressure and water conservation are typically achieved with either organic mulches or chemical herbicides applied over the root ball of the newly planted tree. In the landscape, eliminating turfgrass from the root zone of trees may be more complicated than resource competition. Studies have shown that tall fescue (Festucaarundinaceae Schreb.) has allelopathic properties on pecan trees [Caryaillinoiensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Well-manicured tall fescue turf in the landscape may have negative effects on the establishment and growth of landscape trees as well. A study was designed to examine the effects of popular turfgrasses on the growth of newly planted pecan and redbud (Cerciscanadensis L.). Results demonstrate that the presence of turfgrass over the root zone of trees negatively impacts tree growth. Through two growing seasons, every growth parameter measured on redbuds (caliper, height, shoot growth, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, leaf area, and leaf weight) was significantly reduced by the presence of turf. However, the warm season bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers.] was less inhibitied than the cool season grasses. The affects of turfgrass on pecan growth was less significant; however, caliper, leaf area, and root dry weight were significantly reduced when grown with turf.

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Michael R. Spafford and Gary J. Kling

Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud, is very Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud, is very susceptible to infection by Verticillium Wilt caused bysusceotible to infection by Verticillium Wilt caused by the common soil-borne fungi Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae. Little is known about the inoculum levels, the time required for natural infection to occur and how fast the pathogen travels inside the host species. One-year-old Cercis canadensis seedlings were planted in 7.6 liter (2-gallon) containers with a 1:1:2 soil/sand/perlite mix inoculated with five levels (0, 10, 100, 500, and 1000 microsclerotia/g soil) of V. dahliae prior to planting. At the end of the first growing season, half of the plants were removed from the containers, surface sterilized, dissected and root sections plated out on a Verticillium selective media. The remaining plants were grown for a second season. Infection first occurred in plants which received 100, 500 or 1000 ms/g at the end of the first season. The infection had spread at least 5 cm during the first growing season.

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Hala G. Zahreddine, Daniel K. Struve, and Salma N. Talhouk

The Mediterranean region is a center of great plant diversity, harboring around 25,000 plant species, more than 20% of them endemic. Since the last Lebanese flora record in 1966, the country has experienced habitat fragmentation and destruction, due to overgrazing, overexploitation of natural resources, and urban expansion. A large number of Lebanese tree species have unexplored economic potential as either ornamental or medicinal plants. This study aimed at exploring the effects of two nitrogen fertility treatments on the growth and water use of 2-year-old Cercis siliquastrum seedlings. C. siliquastrum seeds were collected from different locations and mother trees in Lebanon in mid-Aug. 2001. Two-year old plants were then transplanted into 3-gal. containers and were randomly assigned to one of two N fertility programs, 25 ppm or 100 ppm. Plants from all redbud sources were significantly taller in the low N treatment and had significantly higher RGR than plants growing at 100 ppm N. On the other hand, plants growing at 100 ppm N level had significantly higher LAR and lower NAR than plants growing at 25 ppm N. There were significant differences in LAR and plant heights among the different sources. Water use was conducted monthly. It ranged from 3.6 × 10-4 to 1.3 × 10-3 g·cm Ht-1 per hour at 25 ppm and from 2.6 × 10-4 to 1.3 × 10-3 g·cm Ht-1 per hour at 100 ppm N through the experiment.

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Paul B. Redman and John M. Dole

The postharvest attributes of six specialty cut flower species were studied. First year results indicate that Achillea filipendulina `Coronation Gold' had a vase-life of 10.7 days in deionized water (DI) and can be stored one week at 1.7°C and shipped for one day. Buddeleia davidii (Butterfly Bush) had a vase life of 3.8 days in DI water and tolerated two weeks of cold storage and two days of shipping. Celosia plumosa `Forest Fire' (Plume Celosia) had a vase-life of 5.9 days in DI water and tolerated 2 days of shipping. Cercis canadensis (Redbud) had a vase-life of 9 days in DI water and tolerated one day of shipping. Echinacea purpurea `Bright Star' (Purple Coneflower) had a vase-life of 4.6 days in DI water and tolerated 2 weeks of storage and five days of shipping. Helianthus maximilianii (Maximillian Sunflower) had a vase-life of 6.3 days in DI water and tolerated one week of storage. In addition, silver thiosulfate and 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate increased vase-life of Buddeleia davidii, Celosia plumosa, Echinacea purpurea, and Helianthus maximilianii.

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L.G. Buckley, E.T. Graham, and R.N. Trigiano

Zygotic and somatic embryos are purported to follow similar developmental sequences, but few investigations have thoroughly compared the two processes. Developing pods of Cercis canadensis L. (redbud) were collected from trees on the Knoxville campus of the University of Tennessee once or twice per week from 28 March to 8 August 1991. At least 10 ovules/sample date were fixed in FAA to evaluate zygotic embryo ontogeny. A minimum of 40 ovules/sample date were aseptically excised and placed on SH medium supplemented with 9.0 μM 2,4-D and 5 mM ammonium ion to initate somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic and somatic embryos were prepared for histological examination using standard paraffin techniques. Somatic embryos developed primarily from cotyledons and epicotyls of zygotic embryos mat were cultured between 6 June and 19 July. Somatic and zygotic embryos were subtended by multiseriate suspensors and progressed through recognizable globular, cordate and cotyledonary stages of development. Cotyledon morphology was similar for both embryo types. However, many somatic embryos failed to differentiate dome-shaped shoot meristems exhibited by their zygotic counterparts.

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Christopher Catanzaro and Enefiok Ekanem

A community tree planting project was conducted on the border of an urban Nashville, Tenn., neighborhood in Autumn 1994. In Jan. 2000, a written survey was developed to assess residents' perception of this site. Responses were gathered voluntarily and anonymously following a community meeting. Photographs of the site taken before the planting and again recently were available to respondents. Descriptions of the site's appearance prior to planting (turf only) included barren, boring, and lacking character. Comments regarding the site with trees suggest that trees provide cover and shade, are aesthetically pleasing, and represent positive human involvement. The average rating of the site's appearance prior to planting was “fair,” while its recent appearance was rated “very good.” Among three tree species included in the planting, Southern magnolia was strongly preferred over Canadian (Eastern) hemlock and Eastern redbud. Respondents valued magnolia's size, unique flowers and leaves, and evergreen nature. Most respondents did not use the area for any specific purpose. Despite that fact, respondents stated that they benefitted from the soothing aesthetics of the landscaped site, and that the site added value to the neighborhood and implied the qualities of belonging and leadership. An unintended outcome of the survey was its educational aspect. Nearly two-thirds of respondents did not live in the area when this site was landscaped, and most of them were not aware that the neighborhood had conducted the project. Nearly one-half of all respondents expressed interest in additional landscaping at this site or nearby high-visibility, high-use sites.

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Roger Kjelgren

Changes in foliage temperature with environmental conditions were investigated for use in detecting water stress and scheduling irrigations of woody nursery plants. Midday leaf-minus-air temperature (Tl-Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were monitored seasonally for container-grown shrubs--prostrate juniper, upright juniper and dwarf red-stem dogwood--at open and closed spacings. There was an inverse relationship between Tl-Ta and VPD for all species and spacings but with substantial scatter. Slopes for openand closed-spaced shrubs were not significantly different for any species. As container moisture and predawn leaf water potential declined during a dry-down cycle Tl-Ta increased significantly over well-watered levels for open-spaced plants and closed-spaced dogwood. In a field experiment Tl-Ta and VPD were monitored in young London plane, flowering pear, and redbud with-and-without irrigation. Only irrigated London plane Tl-Ta was inversely related to VPD. Leaves coated with petroleum jelly, however, had Tl-Ta levels consistently greater than uncoated leaves in all species, and non-irrigated Tl-Ta rose to those levels during a mid-summer drought. These results suggest that irrigation of container shrubs can be timed to increases in Tl-Ta with VPD, while comparing coated and non-coated Tl-Ta may be more successful for irrigated field production.

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Dewayne L. Ingram and Charles R. Hall

CO 2 e to the GWP for Acer rubrum (red maple) ( Ingram, 2012 ), Picea pungens (blue spruce) ( Ingram, 2013 ), and Cercis canadensis (redbud) ( Ingram and Hall, 2013 ), respectively, from propagation to the nursery gate. Accounting for carbon