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Jayne M. Zajicek and Christine D. Townsend

Placing the horticulture student on a path of professional development as a society-ready graduate for the 21st century takes more than technical knowledge. New types of team-oriented organizations are being created that were not even imagined a few years ago. To help empower students to survive in these organizations, the course “Leadership Perspectives in Horticulture” was created. This interdisciplinary course serves as a model for leadership skill instruction by incorporating the component of leadership development into a technical horticulture course. The objectives of this course are to provide academic and historical perspectives in technical horticulture issues, develop skills in leadership, problem solving, and team building, complete a theoretical study of specific leadership models, and blend theoretical leadership models with horticulture issues by completing a problem solving experience. An overview of the course in addition to changes in leadership behavior of students will be discussed.

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Brian J. Pearson, Kimberly A. Moore, and Dennis T. Ray

proficiency to meet industry employment needs ( Crawford et al., 2011 ; Hart Research Associates, 2015 ). Many horticulture curricula focus on discipline-oriented knowledge and skills, but development of professional skills may be overlooked or not fully

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Joyce G. Latimer, Reuben B. Beverly, Carol D. Robacker, Orville M. Lindstrom, S. Kristine Braman, Ronald D. Oetting, Denise L. Olson, Paul A. Thomas, Jerry T. Walker, Beverly Sparks, John M. Ruter, Wojciech Florkowski, Melvin P. Garber, and William G. Hudson

Optimizing growing conditions and, thereby, plant growth reduces the susceptibility of plants to many disease and insect pest problems. Educating lawn or landscape management professionals and homeowners about plant health management reduces the need for chemical intervention. Pesticides combined with N and P fertilizers contribute to water pollution problems in urban areas; thus, it is important to manage the amount, timing, and placement of chemicals and fertilizers. To educate consumers applying pesticides and fertilizers in residential gardens, we must educate the sales representatives and others who interact most closely with consumers. Evidence suggests that knowledge about the effects of chemicals is limited and that warning labels are not read or are ignored. Integrated pest management (IPM) offers alternatives to conventional chemical treatments, but such methods are not used commonly because of their relatively high cost and their uncertain impact on pests. Pest detection methods and using pest-resistant plants in landscapes are simple and, in many cases, readily available approaches to reducing the dependence on chemical use. Research on effective, low-cost IPM methods is essential if chemical use in landscape management is to decrease. Current impediments to reducing the pollution potential of chemicals used in the landscape include the limited number of easily implemented, reliable, and cost-effective alternative pest control methods; underfunding of research on development of alternative pest control measures; limited knowledge of commercial operators, chemical and nursery sales representatives, landscape architects, and the general public concerning available alternatives; reluctance of the nursery industry to produce, and of the landscape architects to specify the use of, pest-resistant plant materials; lack of economic or regulatory incentive for professionals to implement alternatives; inadequate funding for education on the benefits of decreased chemical use; and the necessity of changing consumer definition of unacceptable plant damage. We need to teach homeowners and professionals how to manage irrigation to optimize plant growth; use sound IPM practices for reducing disease, weed, and insect problems; and minimize pollution hazards from fertilizers and pesticides.

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Douglas S. Chapman and Robert M. Augé

This work was partially supported by a Univ. of Tennessee professional development award to R.M.A. We gratefully acknowledge the technical assistance of Ann Stodola, and we thank Sven Svenson, Bruce Schaffer, Robert Trigiano, Otto Schwarz, and the

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Bruno C. Moser

167 COLLOQUIUM 4 (Abstr. 018–021) The Professional Career: Issues and Concerns

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Bill B. Dean

Washington State Univ. Tri-Cities offers a new agricultural degree program titled Integrated Cropping Systems. It is intended to provide a basic education on the fundamentals of crop production and the environmental context in which crops are grown. Courses are offered at the upper division level to interface with the lower division courses offered at local community colleges. The curriculum is composed of courses in environmental science, ecology and conservation as well as crop growth and development, crop nutrition, plant pathology integrated pest management and others. Students need to meet the same requirements as those at other Washington State Univ. campuses in regards to the general education requirements. The purpose of the Integrated Cropping Systems program is to provide an educational opportunity for agricultural professionals and others in the region who are unable to commute or move to the main campus location. The curriculum provides the background needed for such occupations as grower/producer, crop scouting, sales representative and other entry level agricultural professions. It will supply credits toward certification through the American Registry of Certified Professional Agricultural Consultants (ARCPACS). Integrated Cropping Systems is a unique agricultural curriculum designed to help agriculturists integrate their production practices into the local ecosystem in a way that the environment does not incur damage. It emphasizes the use of environmentally conscience decisionmaking processes and sound resource ethics. The program will graduate individuals who have heightened awareness of the impact agricultural practices have on the ecosystem in which they are conducted.

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Tom A. Vestal, Frank Dainello, Gary J. Wingenbach, and Janet Laminack

Research shows that food irradiation is a safe food technology effective in reducing pathogenic microorganisms, prolonging shelf-life, and controlling pests, such as fruit flies, to avoid quarantine. However, this technology may not be understood widely by food industry professionals. The purpose of this research was to study the effectiveness of professional development designed with a variety of experiential education strategies targeting food industry regulators, Extension agents, and others in the food industry. The workshop, Improving Safety of Complex Food Items Using Electron Beam Technology, included presentations by experts in food irradiation technology, tours of food irradiation facilities, group activities, and a taste-test of irradiated meats and produce. Data were collected from 19 males and 3 females in the paired workshop pre- and post-tests which assessed participants' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns about food safety and food irradiation, using Likert-type scales. The workshop produced significant knowledge gains. Respondents' perceptions of food safety and food irradiation issues were improved significantly as a result of participation in the workshop. Also, respondents' perceived knowledge and understanding of food safety, food irradiation, and the technology behind food irradiation improved significantly upon completion of the workshop and post-test.

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James W. Rushing and Gerald D. Christenbury

Through an agency called Volunteers for Overseas Cooperative Assistance (VOCA), funded primarily by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), professionals from many disciplines are recruited to assist less-developed countries (LDCs) with establishing new industries and/or improving management practices in existing businesses. We were recruited to evaluate the causes of postharvest losses of horticultural products in Russia. These losses historically have been high due to the limited availability of mechanical refrigeration and poor postharvest management practices. This paper reports on the success of an extension demonstration project in Russia where traditional storage and handling systems for carrots were compared to systems using improvements in grading and prestorage sanitation. An evaluation of storage facilities and recommendations for improvements are discussed.

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Tim Rhodus and James Hoskins

. Salaries and research support provided by state and federal funds appropriated to the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University. Manuscript no. 157-94.

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Cathy Myers-Roche and Roger Kjelgren

Interdisciplinary graduate degrees are becoming increasingly popular, filling both employer needs as well as student goals. The Plants and Soils Department at Utah State University offers an interdisciplinary master of professional studies in horticulture (MPSH) degree program specializing in urban landscape water conservation. The MPSH is a one calendar year degree consisting of a small group cohort with a strong emphasis on communication and policy development geared toward creating and managing water conservation programs. Core to this model is what personality type is drawn to an MPSH degree compared to the traditional, research-based master of science degree. We are comparing the personality types of 16 students in the MPSH to 15 students in, or having completed, the traditional MS degree program by using the Myers-Briggs test (MBTI), Strong Interest Inventory (SII) test, and key informant surveys. Basic MBTI personality categories in extroversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling and judging/perceiving are being evaluated by comparison in contrast as well as consistency across the two degree types. Key informant surveys quizzed individual preference regarding the two degrees. Preliminary inspection of survey, MBTI and SII results indicate a definite link between type of graduate program and basic personality trait. Students in or having completed the traditional MS degree program that indicated a preference for the MPSH degree shared the same personality types as those in the MSPH program. These preliminary results suggest that an interdisciplinary professional degree in horticulture focused on a particular topic can appeal to horticultural undergraduates that might not otherwise consider a graduate degree.