Household detergents were evaluated in field studies on fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) for insecticidal and phytotoxic effects. Laboratory bioassays were used to examine the toxicity of a household liquid dish detergent on small nymphs of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring. The detergents tested proved to be more toxic to whitefly nymphs than the commercial insecticidal soap. Detergent treatments were applied to tomato with a commercial high pressure hydraulic sprayer at 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (by volume) initially and at 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% (by volume) in subsequent tests. As detergent rate, frequency of application, or both increased, plant dry weight accumulation and fruit yield decreased. Applying detergent also increased time to fruit maturity. A once-a-week application of 0.25% to 0.5% detergent initially applied 2 weeks after transplanting alleviated phytotoxicity and yield reduction problems.
C.S. Vavrina, P.A. Stansly, and T.X. Liu
Qasim Ahmed, Yonglin Ren, Robert Emery, James Newman, and Manjree Agarwal
researched the efficacy of EF, PH 3 , and their combination for control of purple scum springtails on celery. In this preliminary study, optimal fumigant concentration, exposure period, and evaluation of phytotoxic damage to celery bunches are reported
David Wees and Danielle Donnelly
Leachates were produced by washing Hydra-fill, a polyurethane ester foam, with water. These leachates decreased radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculenturn Mill.) seed germination and were phytotoxic to seedlings. Washing the foam for as little as 5 minutes (compared to not washing) before collecting the leachate significantly decreased the mean seed germination time by 0.6 to 1 day. Rinsing the foam with ethanol before collecting the leachate was detrimental to germination. When used as a potting medium component, the foam reduced radish shoot and root dry weights compared to potting media without foam. Washing the foam with tap water before use resulted in increased radish shoot and root dry weights. Hydra-fill generally reduced plant performance when included in potting media. However, radish grew well in fresh 25% Hydra-fill (raw or washed) mixed with loam.
R.A. Mirabello, A.E. Einert, and G.L. Klingaman
The use of shredded bark, wood chips, and other organic mulches to conserve water and moderate soil temperatures is a common practice in landscape maintenance. Four mulch materials (cottonseed hulls, cypress pulp, pine bark, and pine straw) were examined to determine effects on plant growth and soil conditions in annual flower beds during a 1-year rotation of warm season to cool season annuals. Inhibited plant growth was observed in pine bark treatments at the conclusion of the growing season for both plantings. Effects on soil conditions were insignificant over the year-long study in pine bark treatments. To further investigate potential phytotoxic effects of pine bark and other mulch used in the initial study, a seed bioassay was performed to determine the influence of mulch extracts in solution on germination and primary root elongation.
Judith M. McDowell and Jeffrey G. Norcini
The granular formulation of pendimethalin (Southern Weedgrass Control) safely provides preemergent control of grasses and broadleaf weeds in a variety of landscape ornamentals but few annuals. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate phytotoxicity of pendimethalin to several annual species under landscape conditions. Pendimethalin at 1.7, 2.2, 2.8, or 3.4 kg ai/ha was applied over-the-top to cool and warm season annuals in a simulated landscape at 4-month intervals starting 15 October 1990. The simulated landscape was divided into 4 blocks (reps) with pendimethalin levels as the main plot factor and annual species as the subplot factor. Unweeded and hand-weeded plots served as controls. Irrigation (over-the-top) and insecticides were applied on an as-needed basis. All annuals except `Sonnet Burgundy' snapdragon exhibited some degree of stunting. `Vodka' wax begonia was the most sensitive to pendimethalin as it was moderately stunted at all rates. Weed control generally was good to excellent.
R.J. Hilton, H. Riedl, and P.H. Westigard
Handgun treatments of abamectin and oil applied between mid-June and late August caused distinct epidermal rings where drops of spray liquid dried on the surface of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.). The severity of epidermal injury was related to the concentration of oil in the abamectin spray mixture (abamectin applied without oil caused no fruit damage). Of six pear cultivars tested, `Anjou' was most susceptible to injury, followed by `Cornice' and `Bartlett'. `Sensation Red Bartlett', `Bosc', and `Seckel' showed little or no phytotoxicity symptoms from abamectin and oil treatments with oil concentrations from 0.125% to 2.0% (v/v). On sensitive cultivars, the concentration of oil should not exceed 0.25% (v/v) when combined with abamectin to reduce the risk of epidermal injury. Oil at 0.25% provides for adequate leaf penetration of abamectin and results in commercially acceptable spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control. Chemical names used: avermectin B1 (abamectin).
Marc W. van Iersel and Bruce Bugbee
Benzimidazoles are effective and widely used fungicides, but they may be phytotoxic. We studied the effects of a single drench application of six benzimidazoles and one acetanilide fungicide on photosynthetic gas exchange, growth, development, and nutrient levels of four species of bedding plants in twenty growth-chamber and four greenhouse studies. Daily carbon gain and carbon-use efficiency were calculated from continuous crop gas-exchange measurements in the growth chambers. The maximum labeled rate of Benlate DF caused a 7- to 10-day decrease in net photosynthesis and daily carbon gain in transplants of all species. It also caused pronounced interveinal chlorosis and a 2- to 3-day delay in flowering. Growth of Benlate DF-treated plants was reduced more at high (90%) than at low (60% to 80%) relative humidity. Benlate DF had severe effects on 2-week-old petunia (Petunia ×hybrida) seedlings in plug flats, reducing photosynthesis 25% to 57%. Cleary's 3336 WP decreased photosynthesis in some trials. Benlate DF reduced photosynthesis within 24 hours, but 3336 WP effects did not become apparent until 1 week after the treatment. This suggests different modes of inhibition. 3336 WP also caused leaf-tip and marginal chlorosis in impatiens (Impatiens wallerana). Mertect 340-F was extremely phytotoxic but is not labeled for drench applications (it was included because of its chemical similarity to other benzimidazoles). The only benzimidazole fungicide that did not reduce photosynthesis was Derosal, but it caused slight interveinal chlorosis in some studies with petunia. Benlate DF and Derosal decreased leaf Ca levels. Subdue (or metalaxyl), an acetanilide fungicide, did not affect photosynthesis or cause any visual symptoms. Our results indicate that some benzimidazole fungicides can cause growth reductions and visual damage in bedding plants.
Gwendolyn Eason, Richard A. Reinert, and James E. Simon
Three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] cultivars with different ozone (O3) sensitivities were grown in a charcoal-filtered greenhouse and exposed in continuous-stirred tank reactor chambers to five levels (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 nL·L-1) of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the presence (80 nL·L-1) or absence (0 nL·L-1) of ozone (O3) for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 22 days. In the presence of O3, SO2 increased foliar injury in all three cultivars, but the impact was greatest for the most O3-sensitive cultivar, `Sugar Baby,' moderate for `Crimson Sweet,' and least for the least O3-sensitive cultivar, `Charleston Gray.' For all cultivars, SO2 intensified O3 suppression of leaf area for the first seven mainstem leaves and of dry weights for aboveground and total plant tissues. Root dry weight was independently suppressed by both pollutants, and the root: top ratio was linearly suppressed by SO2 alone. Sulfur dioxide combined with O3 can be detrimental to crop species such as watermelon. Thus, the potential for SO2 phytotoxicity should not be summarily dismissed, especially in the vicinity of SO2 point sources where O3 co-occurs.
Muhammad Mansoor Javaid, Manish Bhan, Jodie V. Johnson, Bala Rathinasabapathi, and Carlene A. Chase
, 1974 ; Pilbeam and Bell, 1979 ) that was demonstrated to be phytotoxic, inhibiting hypocotyl and radicle growth during germination ( Wilson and Bell, 1979 ). Nonprotein amino acids from other legumes also have been shown to be phytotoxic. These include
Bhaskar R. Bondada
reproductive structures frequently succumb entails phytotoxicity of off-target movement of chemicals against which there are no control measures ( Bondada, 2010 ). These chemicals primarily include vapors and spray drifts of phenoxy herbicides ( Bondada et al