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Pat Bowen and Stan Freyman

Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown for 5 years with three floor management treatments: clean cultivation (CC) and ground covers of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) (WC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) (PR). Primocane growth was strongest with WC and weakest with PR. Fruit production did not differ between WC and CC treatments and was higher than with PR. On 22 Aug. and 10 Sept. in the last year, primocanes grown with WC were taller, had more nodes and a higher dry weight, contained more N, and had retained more leaves than those grown with PR. Net CO2 assimilation per unit leaf area was higher with WC than with PR, and the difference was greater at the more proximal position. The estimated net CO2 assimilation rate per primocane was more than twice as high with WC than with PR.

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Joshua K. Craver, Krishna S. Nemali, and Roberto G. Lopez

mediating this response ( Kinoshita et al., 2001 ; Zeiger et al., 2002 ). Further, increased stomatal density and aperture under high percentages of blue radiation may increase a plant’s capacity for CO 2 uptake, ultimately increasing photosynthesis

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Yahia Othman, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Richard Heerema, and Rolston St. Hilaire

the leaf in response to water deficit ( Cifre et al., 2005 ). As plants transition from no or low water deficit to moderate plant water deficit, g S generally declines into the 0.05 to 0.15 mol·m −2 ·s −1 H 2 O range, photosynthesis and

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Xinyi Chang, Junli Sun, Lianling Liu, Wang He, and Baolong Zhao

improve the adaptability and salt tolerance of jujube cultivars. The salt tolerance of wild jujube cultivars currently depends mainly on the use of tolerant rootstocks. Wild jujube often is used as an excellent rootstock for jujube. Photosynthesis is an

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F. Todd Lasseigne, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich, and Thomas G. Ranney

by comparing temperature sensitivity of growth, basic physiological processes such as photosynthesis, and survival across a range of temperatures ( Burke, 1990 , 1995 ; Hopkins, 1999 ; Lambers et al., 1998 ; Larcher, 1994 ; Leegood, 1995 ). The

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Jinmin Fu and Peter H. Dernoeden

injury to plants would be expected to result in an increase in respiration and possibly a reduction in photosynthesis. A concomitant decrease in photosynthesis and increase in respiration could cause a harmful depletion of carbohydrates. Few studies have

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María José Gómez-Bellot, Pedro Antonio Nortes, María Fernanda Ortuño, María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco, Karoline Santos Gonçalves, and Sebastián Bañón

, every ≈1.5 h in five plants per treatment. Leaf g S and net photosynthesis were determined in leaves exposed to sunlight using a gas exchange system (LI-6400; LI-COR Inc.) fixing the conditions of CO 2 concentration at 380 ppm, the photosynthetically

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Richard J. Heerema, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Marisa Y. Thompson, Joshua D. Sherman, Mary J. Comeau, and James L. Walworth

( Walworth et al., 2016 ) and, presumably, higher leaf area index. Fig. 2. Net photosynthesis of leaves from immature ‘Wichita’ pecan trees receiving soil applications of Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at annual rates of 2.2 kg·ha −1 Zn [Zn1 (gray bars

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D.A Grantz, W.A. Retzlaff, L.E. Williams, and T.M. DeJong

Models indicate that ozone inhibits carbon assimilation largely in the upper canopy, due to light and ozone gradients. We document yield reductions and ozone gradients in Casselman plum in open-top ozone fumigation chambers. Ambient air (12 hr mean ozone = 0.050 ppm), charcoal filtered air (0.034 ppm) and ambient air plus added ozone (0.094 ppm) were circulated in the chambers. Additional trees grew outside the chambers (0.058 ppm). Outside the chambers large vertical and horizontal gradients in ozone within the canopy were documented, but these were absent in the chambers. Ozone decreased leaf photosynthesis by 31% and 58%, and fruit yield by 20% and 66%, in the ambient and ozone enriched relative to filtered chambers. Despite altered gradients, yield and photosynthesis of exposed leaves were similar inside and outside the chambers in ambient air. Compensatory changes in leaf function may be involved.

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Sasmita Mishra, Scott Heckathorn, Jonathan Frantz, Futong Yu, and John Gray

roles of B in plant function, apart from the structural function in walls ( Bolaños et al., 2004 ). For example, it is currently debated as to whether effects of B deficiency (or toxicity) on photosynthesis are primary or secondary, or early or late