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Warren C. Stiles, Terence L. Robinson, and W. Shaw Reid

Experiments conducted since 1986 indicate that multi-nutrient fertigation may be effective in improving early growth and yield of new orchards. However, the early studies did not provide information concerning the contributions of individual nutrient elements to these responses. Experiments were established in 1993 and 1994 to compare effectiveness of alternative sources, rates, and methods of applying K, Zn, and Cu through drip irrigation compared with annual soil surface applications to `McIntosh'/M.9 and `Empire'/M.9 trees. After 3 years, leaf K, cumulative shoot growth, and first crop year yields were increased by application of K. Differences between sources, rates, times, or methods of application generally were not significant when relatively high rates were applied. However, early results from a rate study indicate a significant K source by rate interaction. Soil surface application of K plus drip irrigation appears to be comparable to fertigation in supplying this element. After 2 years, applying EDTA chelates of Zn and Cu through fertigation increased leaf Zn and Cu, respectively, but high rates required are considered to be uneconomical when compared with foliar sprays of these elements.

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Bruce W. Wood

Excessive early-season fruit drops can limit pecan orchard profitability. The most problematic drop is typically “Stage II drop,” occurring ≈3 to 5 weeks (usually by mid-June; i.e., June drop) after stigmas of pistillate flowers lose receptivity and

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Virginia Pinillos and Julián Cuevas

and seed paternity analyses were performed to confirm pollination success. Materials and Methods Cross-pollination deficit assessment. The experiments were carried out in two monovarietal orchards of 8-year-old ‘Picual’ trees located in Sorbas (37

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Amelia Camprubí and Cinta Calvet

Estació Experimental de l'Ebre (IRTA-Amposta, Tarragona, Spain) for providing orchards and citrus nurseries. This work has been funded by Viveros Gurbí (Alcanar, Tarragona, Spain). The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of

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Angela Knerl, Brendon Anthony, Sara Serra, and Stefano Musacchi

As the Pacific Northwest fruit industry shifts to precision-based management strategies for their orchards, tools are needed to understand tree physiology in the orchard to optimize fruit quality. Leaf area index is the ratio between the summed area

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M. Lenny Wells

). Overfertilization can be more common in orchard crops than in many other crop species as a result of the increased likelihood of fertilizer N application during the dormant period of perennial crops. Excess N increases vegetative growth, which promotes shading and

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Ibrahim I. Tahir, Sven-Erik Svensson, and David Hansson

productivity depends on low weed competition ( Granatstein, 2003 ; Weibel and Häseli, 2003 ). In organic apple orchards, floor vegetative cover can be used to improve soil fertility and moisture retention, control soil erosion, increase yield, and develop

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Dan TerAvest, Jeffrey L. Smith, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, Lori Hoagland, David Granatstein, and John P. Reganold

et al., 2005 ). Elevated soil N availability may result from increased microbial activity and N turnover ( Forge et al., 2003 ; Yao et al., 2005 ). Forge et al. (2003) reported that use of a high C:N ratio mulch in the tree row of an apple orchard

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Seiichi Miyamoto and Monte Nesbitt

, 1987 ). Soil salinization is potentially exacerbated in orchard soils, mainly as a result of soil compaction imposed by equipment traffic. Soil compaction reduces soil permeability as well as root growth ( Shafiq et al., 1994 ; Sillon et al., 2003

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Ashley A. Thompson and Gregory M. Peck

The profitability of high-density apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) orchards depends on rapidly establishing tree biomass and then obtaining high fruit yields as soon as possible after planting. Apple growers will often apply mineral nitrogen (N