Tree fruit rootstocks are used to influence precocity, tree size, fruit quality, yield efficiency, mineral uptake, and to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the history and literature of apple (Malus domestica) rootstocks and their effects on scion tree growth, yield, fruit quality, leaf mineral nutrition, and photosynthesis. Then, the results of our long-term study on the effects of rootstocks on tree growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral nutrition, and one season of photosynthesis measurement in `BC-2 Fuji' will be presented and discussed. In this study, `Fuji' trees on `Malling 9 NAKBAT337' (M.9) rootstock had the smallest trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), highest yield efficiency, and were the most precocious followed by those on `East Malling-Long Ashton 26' (M.26 EMLA) and `East Malling-Long Ashton 7' (M.7 EMLA). Trees on M.7 EMLA often had larger fruit with less color than those on M.9 and M.26 EMLA. Trees on M.7 EMLA frequently had greater leaf K than those on other rootstocks. Trees on M.26 EMLA always had greater leaf Mg than those on other rootstocks. Leaves from the current terminal shoots (CTS) of trees on M.9 had higher net photosynthesis and transpiration than those on M.7 EMLA rootstock during 1998 growing season.
Esmaeil Fallahi, W. Michael Colt, Bahar Fallahi, and Ik-Jo Chun
Eric A. Curry
Warm daytime and cool nighttime temperatures during fruit maturation are conducive to anthocyanin synthesis and starch degradation in many apple cultivars. In parts of the world, high temperatures during fruit maturation result in sunburn of varying degrees of severity ranging from slight bleaching of the pigments in the epidermal layer to cracked and desiccated skin. This experiment assessed the effects of sunburn on fruit quality and mineral nutrition at harvest. In September 1990, about 2000 `Granny Smith' or `Delicious' apples were examined for sunburn and sorted into the following categories: none, light, bleached, bronzed, buckskin, and cracked. Twenty fruit were collected for each category. Each fruit was subdivided into exposed and shaded halves. Each half of each fruit was evaluated for firmness, soluble solids, and acidity. Tissue samples were analyzed for sugars, total nitrogen, and mineral content. Data suggest that excessive heat due to solar radiation creates a gradient of sugars and minerals within the fruit resulting in increased disorders in certain areas of the fruit.
.). Fruit: Growth, nutrition, and quality. WFL Publisher (Science & Technology), Helsinki, Finland Chaplin, M.H. Dixon, A.R. 1974 A method for analysis of plant tissue by direct reading spark emission spectroscopy Appl. Spectrosc. 28 5 8 Chun, I.J. Fallahi
Elizabeth Baldwin, Jinhe Bai, Anne Plotto, John Manthey, Smita Raithore, Sophie Deterre, Wei Zhao, Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Philip A. Stansly, and James A. Tansey
.R. Rouseff, R.L. 2008 Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 48 681 695 Plotto, A. Baldwin, E.A. Bai, J. Manthey, J. Raithore, S. Deterre, S. Zhao, W. 2017 Effect of vector control and foliar nutrition on the quality of orange
Monica Ozores-Hampton, Eric Simonne, Fritz Roka, Kelly Morgan, Steven Sargent, Crystal Snodgrass, and Eugene McAvoy
-irrigated tomato on plant nutritional status, marketable yield and distribution, and post-harvest quality; and 2) determine the economically optimal rate of N fertilization and analyze the sensitivity of N application rates to market conditions, specifically the
Harbans L. Bhardwaj, Anwar A. Hamama, and Muddappa Rangappa
Lack of adequate processing facilities has been a major hindrance in the adoption of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) as an alternative oilseed crop in the southern United States. Therefore, development of alternative uses could be instrumental in facilitating adoption of canola by American farmers. We evaluated chemical composition of greens from four canola cultivars (`Dixie', `Falcon', `HN120-91', and `Jetton') grown during 1995-96 and 1996-97 at Petersburg, Va., to determine their potential as a food and feed source. The results indicated potential yield of ≈11 t·ha-1 of fresh greens and ≈1 t·ha-1 of dry matter. The canola greens contained 3.4% oil and 30.6% protein on a dry weight basis. Canola greens contained 0.52%, 4.14%, 0.35%, 1.59%, and 0.20% (dry weight basis) of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, respectively. Canola greens also contained 0.94, 2.02, 5.47, 14.65, 28.61, 0.74, and 31.92 (mg/100 g dry weight basis) of sulfur, boron, zinc, manganese, iron, copper, and aluminum, respectively. The oil in canola greens contained 18.79%, 81.14%, 15.36%, and 65.78% saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Based on these values, canola greens compared favorably with mustard and turnip greens.
James B. Magee
Many concepts of the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables generally accepted in the past, in the light of more knowledge, today are considered “misconceptions.” For example, the tomato, once considered poisonous, then shown edible, later proved to be a “good” food and a valuable source of minerals and vitamin C, today shows the potential for significant anti-cancer activity. Results of a 6-year study of the dietary habits of 47,000 men reported up to a 45% reduction in the incidence of prostate cancer of those who ate 10 or more servings per week of tomato-based products. Other misconceptions to be discussed include nightshade vegetables and arthritis, apples after meals to clean the teeth and gums, and “if a little is good for you, a lot must be better.” Today's nutritional ideas about many fruits and vegetables may become tomorrow's misconceptions as our knowledge of the composition (e.g., phytochemicals) of fruits and vegetables increases. Examples of this are include the use of muscadine pomace and the nutritive value of strawberries.
S. Gamiely, W.M. Randle, H.A. Mills, D.A. Smittle, and G.I. Banna
Nitrogen applied as NH4-N or NO3-N (75 mg·liter-1) affected onion (AIlium cepa L.) plant growth when grown in solution culture. Nitrate alone or in combination with NH4-N increased leaf fresh and dry weight, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight, and bulb dry weight when compared to growth with NH4-N as the sole N source. Bulb fresh weight was highest with an NH4-N: NO3-N ratio between 1:3 and 3:1. Maximum leaf fresh weight was not necessary to produce maximum bulb fresh weight when onions were subjected to different N-form ratios. Precocious bulbing resulted when NH4-N was the sole N source; however, high bulbing ratios early in plant development were not correlated with final bulb fresh weight. Nitrogen form also influenced water uptake and pungency, as measured by enzymatically developed pyruvate concentration, but did not affect bulb sugar concentration.
Since the environmental conditions and cultural practices are unique in southwest Florida, a study was performed to determine the horticultural adaptability and performance of `Valencia' orange trees on four commercial rootstocks grown in a high-density planting. The trees were planted in 1991 on a flatwoods soil in a commercial grove at a density of 627 trees/ha. Leaf mineral concentration, growth, and fruit production and quality were measured 4 and 7 years after planting. Compared to Florida citrus leaf standards, leaf mineral concentration values were within the optimum to the high range. Yield efficiency expressed as kilograms of solids per cubed meter of canopy and juice quality in terms of juice content, soluble solids concentration, and kilograms of solids per box increased with tree age. Tree and fruit size were the highest for Volkamer lemon (Volk) and the lowest for Cleopatra mandarin (Cleo). Fruit yield was the highest for Volk. However, yield expressed in kilograms of solids per hectare was not significantly different between Volk and `Swingle' citrumelo (Swi) due to the higher solids per box for Swi. Yield efficiency was also higher for Swi than for Volk. Juice content and soluble solids in the fruit were higher for Swi and Cleo than for the lemon rootstocks. Financial analysis showed that at high-density planting, trees on Swi were the most profitable. On noncalcareous flatwoods soil, Swi is the best suited rootstock for high-density planting.