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Todd C. Wehner and Ervin G. Humphries

The construction of a single-fruit seed extractor for cucumber is described. It increases the speed and ease of removing seeds from individual, mature cucumbers for later drying and planting. The machine saves about 47 seconds/fruit compared to hand methods and is suited to handling single fruit (or batches of up to 50) by researchers needing seeds from controlled pollinations. In 5 years of use, no reduction in seed recovery or germination has been observed using the seed extractor relative to hand harvest.

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Carol A. Miles, Travis R. Alexander, Gregory Peck, Suzette P. Galinato, Christopher Gottschalk, and Steve van Nocker

cider apple growers have shifted to higher-density systems using semidwarfing rootstocks that allow for a greater degree of mechanization ( Fitzgerald et al., 2013 ). Many cider apple growers in the United States are transitioning to high-density (1000

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Israel S. Joukhadar, Stephanie J. Walker, and Paul A. Funk

or used for extraction of red pigments to produce oleoresin paprika; the dried red fruit does not have to be whole or unblemished after harvest. The acceptability of fruit damage for red chile processors has driven the adoption of mechanization of red

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David S. Conner and Kathleen Demchak

encourages others to start with a small area under tunnels This grower made a large upfront investment in multibay tunnels and is now looking to sell them because they do not fit his operation (mechanized) and markets (commodity). A grower who started small

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Michele R. Warmund, Andrew K. Biggs, and Larry D. Godsey

United States, mechanized hazelnut sweeper-type harvesters (Weis McNair, Chico, CA) are used in orchards with a bare soil surface. However, this equipment is not an effective harvester in the midwestern or eastern United States where groundcovers are

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Geoffrey Dervishian, and Robert L. Wample

course of the study. Implementing mechanization as part of the canopy management practices reduced labor costs in this study. In the SJV of California, all canopy management methods tested in this study are used with varying degrees of success. Verdagaal

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Tong Geon Lee, Reza Shekasteband, Naama Menda, Lukas A. Mueller, and Samuel F. Hutton

). Unlike processing tomatoes that have been successfully adapted for mechanized harvest, production of fresh-market tomatoes continues to rely on manual labor for harvesting and other common cultural practices (such as staking, tying, and pruning), which

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Charles L. Webber III, James W. Shrefler, and Merritt J. Taylor

-free application area for the direct-seeding of vegetable crops. A mechanized applicator was developed and evaluated to apply CGM in a banded configuration ( Webber and Shrefler, 2007a ). The applicator was constructed using various machinery components (fertilizer

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Dale E. Marshall

For nearly 30 years, more than 75 different groups: producers, entrepreneurs, engineers, processors, consultants, state or federal researchers, or manufacturers have constructed over 195 harvesters attempting to mechanize the harvest of Capsicum peppers. Countries testing experimental harvesters include: Bulgaria, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Spain, the United States, and the former Soviet Union. Over 25 principles have been tested. In 1980, there were 10 different university, state, or federal research agencies experimenting with pepper harvest mechanization. However, in 1990, there were no active mechanization projects. At least 13 patents have been identified that have been issued on pepper harvesters and 65 patents on harvesting elements or principles for other crops that have been tested or might be used to harvest peppers. Interest in mechanization has resumed in the United States and a number of commercial harvesters are available. Harvester usage is expected to increase significantly by the year 2000.

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Tong Geon Lee, Samuel F. Hutton, and Reza Shekasteband

the horticultural industries is a shift toward lower labor inputs and increased mechanization to achieve higher levels of productivity with lower costs. To accomplish this in fresh-market tomato, it is imperative to incorporate genes that optimize