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Taku Shimizu, Kazuma Okada, Shigeki Moriya, Sadao Komori, and Kazuyuki Abe

vegetables, including apple ( Malus × domestica ), causes their surfaces to turn a brownish color ( Pristijono et al., 2006 ). These color changes (hereinafter referred to as “browning”) are caused by phenolic oxidation reactions catalyzed by polyphenol

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Thomas Sotiropoulos and Nikolaos Koutinas

not show the postharvest physiological disorders ( Watkins, 2003 ) “external browning” or “water core,” but some years, fruits showed “bitter pit.” However, this problem was resolved by calcium sprays. Fig. 1. Fruits of the apple cultivar Eris. Table 1

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Carol A. Miles, Travis R. Alexander, Gregory Peck, Suzette P. Galinato, Christopher Gottschalk, and Steve van Nocker

to be used. Traditionally, both in the United States and abroad, cider apple was grown in low-density (70–100 trees/acre) orchards, on rootstocks that support vigorous growth and produce a free-standing tree. However, in Europe and elsewhere, many

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

New Zealand are leafrollers and the bronze beetle [ Eucolaspis brunnea (F.)] ( Rogers et al., 2006 ). Leafrollers include the light-brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (LBAM), which can restrict fruit entry into parts of the United

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Corina Serban, Lee Kalcsits, Jennifer DeEll, and James P. Mattheis

consistent with this hypothesis, as low oxygen reduces ethylene action ( Burg and Burg, 1967 ). although DeEll et al. (2016) observed blotch increased as CA was delayed. Fig. 2. Peel bitter pit and leather blotch on ‘Honeycrisp’ apples. All fruit were held

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Young Soon Kwon, Soon-Il Kwon, Jeong-Hee Kim, Moo Yong Park, Jong Taek Park, and Jinwook Lee

peel, even under high summer temperatures. The incidence of flesh browning was negligible in ‘Arisoo’ during cold storage and shelf life; therefore, ‘Arisoo’ apple is a highly important variety not only for fresh consumption but also for processing into

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Renae E. Moran, Youping Sun, Fang Geng, Donglin Zhang, and Gennaro Fazio

Czyncsyk, A. Holubowicz, T. 1984 Hardy, productive apple tree rootstocks used in Poland Compact Fruit Tree 17 19 31 Domoto, P. Autio, W. Brown, G. Ferree, D. Hirst, P. Mullins, C. Schupp, J. 2001 Blackheart injury in ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Empire

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Renae E. Moran, Bryan J. Peterson, Gennaro Fazio, and John A. Cline

‘M.9’, browning index was low. Fig. 5. Cambial browning in 1- and 2-year-old shoot pieces exposed to subfreezing temperatures following 2 d of warm (22 °C) or cold (2 °C) temperature in Mar. 2015. y = Bmax/[1 + e b (TI – x) ], where y

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Carolina A. Torres, Omar Hernandez, Maria A. Moya-León, Ivan Razmilic, and David R. Rudell

Schrader, 2012 ; Yuri et al., 2000b ). Climatic conditions in these regions can elevate photooxidative and heat stress throughout the growing season affecting the tree and fruit physiology. Skin browning or “stain” can develop on ‘Fuji’ apples during cold

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Luiz C. Argenta, Sérgio T. de Freitas, James P. Mattheis, Marcelo J. Vieira, and Claudio Ogoshi

flesh browning, blackening or cracking, mealy texture, corking, shriveling, and other symptoms. The incidence of physiological disorders in apples is highly regulated by the genotype and environmental conditions before and after harvest ( Watkins and