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James McConnell and L. Robert Barber

A Print-on-Demand (POD) System was developed to expand the availability of printed extension and educational materials. The layouts are developed on a computer using text files and digital images. Images can be edited with graphics programs before insertion into the layouts. The completed materials are stored, in final format, on disk and are printed on an as-needed basis or distributed over computer networks. The system greatly reduces the production time to a finished product and gives great flexibility in revising publications. The basic POD system consists of a computer, a mass storage device, and a printer. Photo CDs and video capture are the most common sources of digital images. Photo CDs produce higher-quality images but require more time to get the digitized images due to commercial processing. For Photo CDs, the images are photographed with a 35-mm camera and sent for processing and digitizing. With live video capture, a video camera is connected directly to a computer and images are digitized in real time. Tape recorded images also can be used, but the image quality is less than live video. Video images are digitized at 72 pixels per inch (ppi), and Photo CD images are available at >3000 ppi. Video images are best digitized at twice their desired size and reduced to final size when increasing the resolution.

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Christopher Lindsey, Gary Kling, and Mark Zampardo

UIPLANTS is a program developed under Microsoft Windows to help students in woody plant materials courses. Its many options include an encyclopedic format that displays 256-color high-resolution images of plant identification characteristics and ornamental features coupled with text, side by side image comparisons, “book markers” to return to selected screens, and a slide show that runs a display of images in a user-defined format. The system is being used to study how students learn information presented to them through computers and which program features are most effective in improving plant knowledge. Through computer logging of all student activity within the program and surveys given to the test groups, some basic usage patterns were derived. Students using the program with no incentive tended to use the program in a more comprehensive manner, switching back and forth between the slide show and encyclopedic entries with equal time spent in each. The comparison and “bookmark” features were used but less frequently. Half of the students, given an extra credit incentive based on time, followed this same usage pattern, but the other half simply used the slide show with minimal student–computer interaction.

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Amy N. Campbell, T.M. Waliczek, J.C. Bradley, J.M. Zajicek, and C.D. Townsend

As human pressures on the environment increase and as conflicting demands on education become focused, schools have a greater responsibility to educate children to care for their environment. Results from this study demonstrated that students who were involved in the actual propagation and restoration of ecosystems, and who had positive experiences in doing so, were more likely to have positive environmental attitudes.

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Christopher Lindsey, Gate Kline, and Mark Zampardo

An interactive computer-based system was designed to improve student plant identification skills and knowledge of ornamental, cultural, and usage information in a woody landscape plant materials course. The program is written for use under ToolBook, a Microsoft Windows based program, and incorporates 256-color high-resolution images and text into a single interactive computer program. Features include: a slideshow that allows students to select which genera and plant characteristics are to be viewed and in what order with the option of an interactive quiz, seeing the names immediately, or after a delay; side by side comparison of any image or text selection; and encyclopedic entries, all with a user-defined path and pace of study.

The system is being used to study how students learn the information presented to them via computer technology and which program features are most useful for improving identification skills and knowledge of other plant features. The computer tracks and logs all activity by students on the system for analysis.

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Laura A. Sanagorski and George E. Fitzpatrick

topics is being encouraged ( Smith and Motsenbocker, 2005 ). As an added benefit, these topics have been shown to facilitate the instruction of other subjects ( Dirks and Orvis, 2005 ; Nyenhuis, 1994 ), and can improve critical life skills in children

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Robert J. Joly and W.R. Woodson

Publication number 16,184 of the Purdue University Office of Agricultural Research Programs. Instructional laboratory development was supported by National Science Foundation DUE-9451170 to RJJ and WRW. The cost of publishing this paper

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David J. Beattie and Lawrence C. Ragan

1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Horticulture. 2 Instructional Designer, Computer Based Education Laboratory. Contribution no. 146 Dept. of Horticulture. Authorized for publication as Paper no. 8180 in the Journal Series of the Pennsylvania

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Emily A. Barton, Susan S. Barton, and Thomas Ilvento

instructors” ( Simonson et al., 2009 ). This definition highlights three key features of distance education, which must be explicitly addressed in the instructional design and delivery: 1) learners are physically separate from one another and/or the instructor

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Rolston St. Hilaire, Theodore W. Sammis, and John G. Mexal

for three 50 min lectures and one 2-h laboratory each week. Each of three laboratory sections has 15 to 17 students, with a teaching assistant (TA) assigned to each laboratory section. At NMSU, instruction in HORT 100G routinely requires laboratory

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Amy L. McFarland, Benjamin J. Glover, Tina M. Waliczek, and Jayne M. Zajicek

plants and nature ( Klemmer et al., 2005 ; Pigg et al., 2006 ; Robinson and Zajicek, 2005 ; Skelly and Bradley, 2000 ). Unfortunately, Skelly and Bradley (2000) found that gardening was used as an instructional tool less than 10% of the time even