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Brian R. Poel and Erik S. Runkle

transplanting should have a high dry weight per internode and be compact. Randall and Lopez (2014) reported decreases in seedling height of six ornamental species grown under 15% B + 85% R radiation from LEDs compared with those grown under HPS SR at a PPFD

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Ibrahim Demir, Tuba Celikkol, Golge Sarıkamıs, and Ceren Eksi

Viola is a popular bedding plant. The relatively high initial cost of flower seeds has led growers to use precision seeding and transplant production systems to maximize seedling stands ( McDonald and Kwong, 2005 ). Maximum efficiency in plug

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Mary A. Rogers and Annette L. Wszelaki

High tunnels are unheated season extension structures that allow growers in temperate regions to fulfill consumer demand for fresh market produce at times which are traditionally off-season ( Conner et al., 2009 ). High tunnel production is well

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Johann S. Buck, Chieri Kubota, and Merle Jensen

measure of flavor because of its simple measurement procedure using a handheld refractometer. High-quality cherry tomatoes with proper color, size, and high TSS can attain a premium price in the competitive fresh tomato market in North America. A common

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Fumiomi Takeda and John Phillips

strategies and improved harvest efficiency have enabled diversification for small farms and opened up niche markets ( Takeda et al., 2008 ). A wide variety of techniques, such as RCs, coldframes, plasticulture, plastic-covered and glass greenhouses, and high

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Thierry E. Besançon, Baylee L. Carr, and Albert Ayeni

/acre ( Porter, 1991 ). Regardless of the PRE herbicide applied before transplanting, large crabgrass was controlled at least 95% by 5 WAT (data not shown). Control remained high by 8 WAT, but without significant differences between treatments, with a minimum

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Richard L. Hassell, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Wilfred (Bill) R. Jester, Stephen M. Olson, Donald N. Maynard, and Gilbert A. Miller

wire racks at the field before being transplanted in the field on 24 Apr. Drip irrigation was initiated at planting, two cycles per day. Daily fertigation through the drip system was begun on 2 May. Ethalfluralin and clomazone (Strategy) herbicides were

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Toshio Shibuya, Akihito Sugimoto, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Makoto Kiyota

In a community with high plant density, as seen in transplant production, the gas exchanges between plant and atmosphere are conducted through a unique boundary layer developed above the canopy ( Kim et al., 1996b ). The boundary layer varies with

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Elsa S. Sánchez, Ermita Hernández, Mark L. Gleason, Jean C. Batzer, Mark A. Williams, Timothy Coolong, and Ricardo Bessin

plastic mulch ( Table 1 ). The irrigation system supplemented natural rainfall to attain a total of 1.0 to 1.5 acre-inches of water per week. Spunbond rowcovers (Agribon ® , Mooresville, NC) were installed within 24 h after transplant. Wire support hoops

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Meiling Yang, Fang Li, Hong Long, Weiwei Yu, Xiuna Yan, Bin Liu, Yunxiu Zhang, Guorong Yan, and Wenqin Song

Tienshan Mountains. Wild populations produce many fruits as a result of insect pollination. Preliminary studies revealed that pollen vitality is high and the average pollen vigor is as high as 64%. However, the self-pollination levels are low ( Liu et al