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Zhengwang Jiang, Feiyan Tang, Hongwen Huang, Hongju Hu, and Qiliang Chen

Smouse, 2001 ). The relative magnitude of genetic differentiation between geographic cultivar groups [Wright's F -statistic ( F ST )] was calculated by different methods implemented in analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) ( Excoffier et al., 1992 ) and

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Jessica Chitwood, Ainong Shi, Beiquan Mou, Michael Evans, John Clark, Dennis Motes, Pengyin Chen, and David Hensley

( Tamura et al., 2013 ) to analyze the genetic diversity and draw the phylogenetic trees for the same association panel, if both analyses from STRUCTURE and MEGA were matched; we assumed these were well-differentiated genetic populations and admixture in

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Jana Murovec

pairwise comparisons of population genetic differentiation (F ST ) between 0.030 (accessions “07-Gleisdorfer Opal” and “08-Gleisdorfer Diamant”) and 0.760 (accessions “32-PI 364240-Gribovskaja 14” and “48-PI 267664-Yellow Long”). AMOVA revealed that 37

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Jacob Mashilo, Hussein Shimelis, Alfred Odindo, and Beyene Amelework

the formula: N m = 0.25 (1 − F ST / F ST ) using GenAlex. Nei’s unbiased genetic distance was also estimated using GenAlex. Genetic differentiation ( F ST ) was computed according to Weir and Cockerham’s Q methods using [Q]FSTAT ( Weir and Cockerham

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Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Ann A. Reilley, Adam D. Henk, Patrick A. Reeves, Philip L. Forsline, and Herb S. Aldwinckle

). Table 2. Descriptive statistics for each of seven microsatellite loci based on genotypic data from 496 Malus orientalis individuals that originated from seeds collected in Russia and Turkey. Genetic structure estimates were calculated using

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Joanne A. Labate

: Sim, S. Robbins, M.D. Van Deynze, A. Michel, A.P. Francis, D.M. 2011 Population structure and genetic differentiation associated with breeding history and selection in tomato ( Solanum

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Yuan Yu, Chunxian Chen, Ming Huang, Qibin Yu, Dongliang Du, Matthew R. Mattia, and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr.

of Agriculture and Consumer Services) in Winter Haven, FL, using the previously used 1536-SNP genotyping assay ( Yu et al., 2016 , 2017 , 2018 ), and to determine their SNP fingerprints and to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and

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Marko Maras, Jelka Šuštar-Vozlič, Wolfgang Kainz, and Vladimir Meglič

differentiation against the accessions from other country regardless of the cultivation period. Apparently, in the last century, Austrian and Slovene beans have been diversifying through accumulation of different alleles building up distinct genetic structures

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Kanin J. Routson, Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Steven E. Smith, Gary Paul Nabhan, and Victoria Wyllie de Echeverria

, they have been used to successfully differentiate between individuals and identify structure in other Malus sp. ( Richards et al., 2009 ; Volk et al., 2008 ). We extracted genomic DNA from frozen leaf tissue (field collections) and dried leaf tissue

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Noémi Makovics-Zsohár, Magdolna Tóth, Dezső Surányi, Szilvia Kovács, Attila Hegedűs, and Júlia Halász

. Molecular markers developed from Prunus species offer a reliable tool to study and understand genome evolution and structure, the estimation of genetic diversity, the determination of genetic relationship, and the identification of cultivars ( Gharbi et al