The anthocyanin in `Sensation Red Bartlett' pear skin was characterized and quantified, and the effect of light quality on fruit color development was evaluated. Anthocyanin concentration was related to fruit chromaticity values. Pigments were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). One of two spots detected in the TLC chromatogram did not change color with molybdate sprays, indicating the possible presence of peonidin. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of a major and a minor pigment, which co-eluted with cyanidin 3-galactoside and peonidin 3-galactoside. Monomeric anthocyanins in the pear skin extract were 6.83 mg/100 g of fruit peel. To study light quality, gelatin filters allowing passage of different wavelengths of-light were attached over the exposed side of `Sensation Red Bartlett' pears 1 month before harvest. Chromaticity was recorded before the filters were attached and after their removal at harvest using the Commission Internationale del'Eclairage (L*, a*, and b*) color space coordinates. Following color measurements, anthocyanin was extracted from individual skin disks. Skin beneath all filters yielded less hue than the control. Wavelengths that transmit above 600 nm had the largest effect on chroma, a*, and b* values. Fruit wrapped in aluminum foil to obscure all light had the highest luminosity. Wavelengths from 400 to 500 nm gave darker, less chromatic, and redder pear fruit. All treatments yielded higher anthocyanin content than the control. There was a tendency toward increased anthocyanin content with longer wavelengths. The simple linear regression of the log anthocyanin content on L* value and (a*/b*) provided an R 2 = 0.41.
Maria Claudia Dussi, David Sugar, and Ronald E. Wrolstad
Sher-Muhammad and Bradley H. Taylor
185 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 723-730) FRUIT CROPS: GROWTH SUBSTANCES
John A. Barden
In 1990, 15-yr-old `Smoothee Golden Delicious' trees on M.9, M.9/MM.111, and MM.111 were used. On each of 4 trees per rootstock, 3 branches (1.0-1.7 cm dia) were selected. On 7 June (45 DAFB), crop loads were adjusted to 3, 5, or 7 fruit per cm2 branch cross sectional area (BXSA), and each branch was girdled. On 6 Sept all fruit were harvested; fruit weight, ground color, percent blush, soluble solids, starch, and firmness were regressed against crop load. Each was negatively related to crop load, most strongly for soluble solids, ground color and blush. Rootstock influenced several factors and some interaction with crop load occurred.
In 1991, heavily cropping 10-yr-old trees of Empire/M.7A were used. One each of 7 trees, branches (1.2-2.0 cm dia) were thinned to 4, 8, or 12 fruit/cm2 BXSA on 5 June (40 DAFB). One branch per crop load per tree was girdled on 5 June. On 29 Sept fruit were harvested for evaluation. ANOVA indicated significant interactions between crop load and girdling for fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids and starch. Each showed a significant negative linear regression with crop load on girdled branches; on ungirdled branches none of the regressions were significant.
Jo Ann Robbins and Patrick P. Moore
During storage for 16 days at 0 or 4.5C or storage for 8 days at 20C, fresh raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. var. idaeus) fruit became darker, less red, and more blue as recorded in L* a* b* CIE coordinates. Cultivars maintained their relative at-harvest ratings throughout storage. Rates of change for cultivars during storage did not differ. Color changes depended on temperature, with rates of change fastest at 20C, especially during the first 4 days. Fruit stored 16 days at OC was more red and less blue than that stored at 4.5C. Maximum color change was reached after 8 days at 0 or 4.5C and after 4 days at 20C.
Harry L. Andris and Carlos Crisosto
104 ORAL SESSION 32 (Abstr. 240–247) Culture & Management/Fruit & Nuts (Temperate)
Harry S. Paris
Most cultivars of acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo), such as `Table Queen', have fruit that are light green when young, become dark green by intermediate age, and remain dark green through maturity, carrying genotype D/D l-l/l-1 L-2/L-2. Many other forms of C. pepo that carry this genotype, the most familiar being the Halloween and pie pumpkins, turn orange at maturity. The genetic basis for green color retention of acorn squash was investigated by crossing `Table Queen' with `Vegetable Spaghetti', `Fordhook Zucchini', and accession 85k-9-107-2 (the parental, filial, backcross, and testcross generation progenies being grown out in the field and observed and scored for fruit color at maturity, between 40 and 44 days past anthesis). The results indicated that the three stocks crossed with `Table Queen' carry two recessive genes, designated mature orange-1 (mo-1) and mature orange-2 (mo-2), which act in concert to result in complete loss of green color before maturity in 1-1/1-1 plants. `Table Queen' is Mo-l/Mo-1 Mo-2∼o-2. Genes D and mo-2 are linked, ≈15 map units apart.
Deirdre M. Holcroft and Adel A. Kader
Anthocyanin concentrations increased in both external and internal tissues of `Selva' strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) stored in air at 5 °C for 10 days, but the increase was lower in fruit stored in air enriched with 10 or 20 kPa CO2. Flesh red color was less intense in CO2 storage than in air storage. Activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and UDP glucose: flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) decreased during storage, with decreases being greater in both external and internal tissues of strawberry fruit stored in air + 20 kPa CO2 than in those kept in air. Activities of both PAL and GT in external tissues of strawberries stored in air + 10 kPa CO2 were similar to those in fruit stored in air, while enzyme activities in internal tissues more closely resembled those from fruit stored in air + 20 kPa CO2. Phenolic compounds increased during storage but were not affected by the storage atmosphere. The pH increased and titratable acidity decreased during storage; these effects were enhanced in internal tissues by the CO2 treatments, and may in turn have influenced anthocyanin expression.
Irene Kadzere, Chris B. Watkins, Ian A. Merwin, Festus K. Akinnifesi, John D. K. Saka, and Jarret Mhango
The full commercial potential of wild loquat [Uapaca kirkiana (Muell. Arg.)], a fruit that is widely used for food and income in parts of Africa, is restricted by its short shelf life and variability in postharvest quality. We have evaluated within and among tree variability in fruit size and color at harvest, and changes of color, soluble solids concentrations (SSC) and pulp deterioration during storage, of fruit harvested during the maturation period. The relationships between fruit shape, size, seed number and SSC of fruit harvested at the ripe stage of maturity was also assessed. Size and color of fruit within and among trees at harvest varied greatly within the same location on the same harvest date. The a* values (redness) were more variable than for other color attributes, reflecting a range of fruit colors from greenish to brown. During a 6 day storage period, fruit color lightness and yellowness decreased, while redness increased, and variation in color attributes decreased. Although fruit color intensified during storage, the SSC of fruit after ripening was linked more with fruit color at harvest, with mean concentrations ranging from 6.7% to 13.8% among trees. When fruit were harvested four weeks later and categorized by color at harvest, SSC varied from 11.8% in greenish-yellow fruit to 14.5% in browner fruit. Pulp deterioration of stored fruit harvested unripe was observed by 6 days. The SSC of fruit harvested when ripe was not significantly correlated with shape, size or seed number. These observations have important implications for germplasm selection and collection of U. kirkiana for domestication purposes. Timing of harvest and/or postharvest sorting of fruit is likely to reduce variability in SSC during the postharvest period.
Suparna Whale*, Zora Singh, and John Janes
Growth and maturation of `Pink Lady' (Malus domestica Borkh.) apples with special emphasis on ethylene biosynthesis and color development were monitored in Western Australia during 2002-2003. Changes in fruit growth, respiration rate, ethylene production, anthocyanin accumulation and development of red blush were evaluated between 60 days after full bloom (DAFB) and commercial harvest (191DAFB). Fruit diameter, length and fresh weight showed the typical single sigmoid growth curve, with linear increases until 158 DAFB. High respiration rate and ethylene production were recorded 60 DAFB followed by rapid decrease until 144 DAFB and then a steady increase, which peaked between 172 and 179 DAFB. Red blush on the fruit surface showed steady increase from 167 DAFB and corresponded to concomitant decrease in hue angle. Total anthocyanin increased from 167 DAFB till harvest and synchronized with increasing ethylene and maturity of apples. There were significant (P ≤ 0.001), direct linear relationships between ethylene production and total anthocyanin (r = 0.63, y = 7.6032x + 2.4756), total anthocyanin and red blush (r = 0.74, y = 0.5082x -1.54). Significant (P ≤ 0.001) negative direct linear relationships between total anthocyanin and hue angle (r = -0.89, y = -0.5973x + 110.14), and ethylene and hue angle (r = -0.69, y = -5.37x + 109.60) were recorded. Increasing anthocyanin content and red blush also coincided with decreasing daily temperatures in the orchard. Reduction in fruit firmness and acidity and increase in TSS from 167DAFB were good indicators of advancing maturity of apples. Our experimental results indicate that red blush in `Pink Lady' apples develops a few weeks before harvest and is regulated by ethylene biosynthesis and temperature.
Jiayi Ji, Zhenglin Li, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Jianjun Li, Liqiang Liu, Zhe Gao, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao
with a ruler or Vernier caliper. All references to color were based on the Royal Horticultural Society (2007 ; RHS, fifth ed., UK) color chart. The fruit soluble solids, titratable acid, and vitamin C (Vc) content, and fruit hardness across 10 samples