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Torin O. Pope and Caula A. Beyl

The Aquifoliaceae and Magnoliaceae families play an important role in seasonal holiday arrangements. For florists, floral designers, and seasonal gift shop owners, there is a great need to find cut foliage species suitable for use in floral displays. Foliage cuttings that retain their appearance, stay green, and do not drop leaves or berries are desired characteristics for greenery used in these displays. Because of their attractive foliage, the following species were chosen: Ilex × attenuata, Ilex vomitoria, Ilex cornuta `Rotunda', Ilex cornuta `Burfordii', Ilex opaca, Osmanthus heterophyllus, Ilex latifolia, and Magnolia grandiflora. For each species, cuttings were taken, fresh weights for these cuttings were obtained, and chlorophyll levels were measured. Measurements forweight and chlorophyll levels were then taken once a day for 5 days. After the five daily measurements, the measurements were taken once a week for 3 weeks. Based upon slow rate of water lost, chlorophyll retention, and visual rating of appearance, the two most suitable species were Osmanthus heterophyllus and Ilex latifolia. The Ilex vomitoria was unsuitable because of the tendency to drop leaves. The Ilex opaca was also unsuitable because of leaf drop and unattractive leaf curling.

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Arnold H. Hara, Trent Y. Hata, Victoria L. Tenbrink, Benjamin K.S. Hu, and Mike A. Nagao

Postharvest treatments significantly reduced or eradicated pests on various tropical cut flowers and foliage. Immersion in water at 49° C for 10 minutes killed armored scales on bird of paradise leaves, Strelitzia reginae Banks, as well as aphids and mealybugs on red ginger, Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum. Vapor heat treatment for 2 hours at 45.2° C provided quarantine security against armored scales on bird of paradise leaves. A 5 minute dip in fluvalinate combined with insecticidal soap eliminated aphids and significantly reduced mealybugs on red ginger. A 3 minute dip in fluvalinate, a 3 minute dip in chlorpyrifos, or a 3 hour fog with avermectin-B significantly reduced thrips on orchids, Dendrobium spp., without injury to the flowers. No postharvest treatment was both effective and nonphytotoxic on all commodities.

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J.F. Brewer, L.E. Hinesley, and L.K. Snelling

Current-year shoots of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] were sampled in Christmas tree plantations in western North Carolina. Needles were sampled at five positions on each shoot: 0% (proximal end), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (distal end). At each position, needles were collected in a tight left-hand spiral beginning on the abaxial side (bottom) and ending on the adaxial side (top). Length, width, thickness, dry weight, and projected surface area were determined for each needle. Specific area (one-sided) averaged 45 cm2·g-1 and increased from the shoot base to the tip. On individual shoots, needle dimensions were maximal at the middle (50% position). Within sample positions, needle dimensions increased from the adaxial to the abaxial side. Needle length, weight, and area differed more than width or thickness by position. Needle surface area per centimeter of shoot was relatively stable. Regression models using shoot length, diameter, needle density, and average needle length or weight yielded good estimates of total foliage area and weight.

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Alan Stevens and Karen Gast

The commercial production of preserved plant materials for decorative purposes is expanding. The industry, once dominated by a relatively small number of large wholesale firms, marketing through traditional retail florists, is undergoing change. A large retail craft supply industry, country accent retail stores and home-based businesses selling at craft fairs have greatly expanded the market for preserved plant materials. Glycerin has often been used to maintain flexibility and reduce breakage of preserved foliages. Dyes are added to the glycerin to add color to the tissue as the chlorophyll fades. Competition in the marketplace places constant pressure on controlling costs. Technical grade dyes of lower dye purity and higher salt concentrations have a lower cost per gram of material than food grade dyes. The effect of the two grades of dye on uptake of glycerin/dye solutions into Eucalyptus cinerea were measured. Under both growth chamber and laboratory room environments glycerin solution alone was systemically absorbed at a greater rate and in larger quantity than either grade of dye. A variation in systemic absorption between grades of dye was also indicated.

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Catherine C. Neto, Christine A. Dao, Michelle R. Salvas, Wesley R. Autio, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

short, vertical stems known as uprights. The production regions of Massachusetts and New Jersey have pest pressure from both insects and diseases ( Averill and Sylvia, 1998 ). Foliage feeders in cranberry production include cutworms (Lepidoptera

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

Caladiums [ Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey, Araceae Juss.] are ornamental aroids widely used as pot and landscape plants for their colorful foliage and ease in growing ( Evans et al., 1992 ; Harbaugh and Tjia, 1985 ). Tens of millions of

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George H. Clough

Field trials were conducted at Hermiston, Ore., from 1995 through 1998 to determine the impact of stand loss and plant damage at different growth stages on yield of onions grown for dehydration. The experiment was a complete factorial with four replications. Stand reduction (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%) and foliage damage (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%) treatments were applied at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-leaf onion growth stages. All average onion production characteristics decreased linearly as stand reduction increased (plant population decreased) at all plant growth stages except average bulb weight which increased as stand was reduced. Bulb weight was not changed by up to 100% foliage removal at the three-leaf stage of growth. At the 6- and 12-leaf stages, bulb weight was reduced when >50% of the foliage was removed. The most severe response occurred at the nine-leaf stage when bulb weights were reduced the most. At the three-leaf stage, yield was not affected by foliage damage. At the six-leaf growth stage, yield was reduced by 75% or more foliage loss, but at the 9- and 12-leaf stages, >50% foliage removal reduced expected yields. As with bulb weight, the impact of foliage removal on yield was most severe at the nine-leaf growth stage.

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P.P. David, C.K. Bonsi, E. Bonsi, R.D. Pace, O. Clark, and L.C. Garner Carva

The effects of sequential foliage topping on two sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam cvs Georgia Jet, TU-82-18921 cultivars were investigated in a field trial. Three initial foliage cuttings (15 cm cutting from the growing tip) were initialed at 45.60 and 75 days after planting (DAP). Each initial cutting date was followed by zero, one or two cuttings at biweekly intervals.

Total storage root yields were not affected by cutting treatments regardless of the cultivar investigated. Both cultivars differed in their response in dry matter accumulation, while Georgia Jet was not affected by cutting treatments, TU-82-1892 accumulated less dry matter when foliage tips were removed twice during the growth cycle (75.90 DAP) compared to all other cutting treatments.

The amount of foliage tips removed from each cultivar differed significantly over all treatment levels with Georgia Jet producing more foliage tips than TU-82-1892. However. production of foliage tips for both cultivars was greatest when foliage cutting was delayed until 75 DAP.

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James D. Hansen, Arnold H. Hara, and Victoria L. Tenbrink

Vapor heat treatments to disinfest tropical cut flowers and foliage were evaluated using a commercial facility. Efficacy was determined for specific durations against representative Hawaiian quarantine pests on their plant hosts. Nymphs and adults of aphids, soft and armored scales, mealybugs, and thrips were killed after 1 hour at 46.6C, and both life stages of aphids and armored scales along with mealybug nymphs after 2 hours at 45.2C. Injury to several varieties of Hawaiian floral commodities (Araceae, Musaceae, Zingiberaceae, Heliconiaceae, Orchidaceae, Marantaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Agavaceae, Proteaceae) during these treatments was determined. Large heliconias, most red ginger, bird-of-paradise flowers and leaves, and most foliage were not damaged; anthuriums, pincushion protea, and orchid flowers and foliage were very sensitive to vapor heat. Treatment modification was needed to reduce plant injury to these commodities without losing efficacy. The number of shelf-life days of the treated plant material was estimated from the visual ratings.

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Fred D. Rauch

A series of studies has been conducted to determine the optimum dolomitic lime rate for the production of foliage plants in a peat/perlite potting mix. Treatments consisted of 10 rates of dolomitic lime from 0 to 6 kg/cu m on 6 species of ornamental foliage plants. In all cases to date the 0 lime rate resulted in as good or better plant growth and quality as the other lime treatments. In general, as lime rate increased there was a reduction in growth and increase in chlorosis under the condition of this trial.