Established leatherleaf fern was grown for one year in a glasshouse in intact soil columns (Astatula fine sand, 21 × 61 cm) contained in drainage lysimeters. Columns were fertilized at rates of 224, 448, or 672 kg N ha-1 yr-1 using controlled-release (CR) fertilizer, either 360-day (360CR) or 180-day (180CR) term, or weekly applications of liquid (L) fertilizer. Water use, yield (number of harvestable fronds) and average frond weight increased linearly with increasing fertilization rate and more fronds were produced using L than CR fertilizers. Frond color measurements paralleled yield results. During cool weather when vase life is greatest, fronds from L fertilizer lysimeters lasted longer than fronds from CR treated plots. During warmer weather, treatments had no effect on vase life. Nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching increased with fertilization rate and exceeded 10 ppm in leachate from the L and 180CR treatments at all application rates. NO3-N in leachate from 360CR lysimeters never exceeded 8 ppm at any application rate.
Robert H. Stamps
Six shadehouses were used in tests of irrigation rates and crop covers for cold-protecting leatherleaf fern [Rumohra adiantiformis (Forst) Ching]. Each shadehouse was equipped with two irrigation systems—one over-the-crop to supply heat and one over-the-shadehouse to supply water for sealing the openings in the shade fabric with ice. The over-the-crop irrigation system consisted of frost protection wedge-drive impact sprinklers providing water application rates of 0.30, 0.56, and 0.76 cm/h. Six-m × 9-m spunbonded polypropylene crop covers weighing 20 and 51 g·m–2 were tested. During radiation freezes, all water application rates protected immature fronds from damage. Damage during advective freezes decreased with increasing water application rate, but, even when crop covers were used in conjunction with irrigation, some damage still occurred. Temperatures under the lighter-weight cover were higher than under the heavier-weight one, probably because more water passed through the lighter cover to the crop. Water application rates had no effect on frond yield.
Bridget K. Behe, Lillie V. Purvis, Lisa M. Beckett, Charles H. Gilliam, and James O. Donald
John E. Erwin, Royal D. Heins, and James E. Faust
Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott `Dallas Jewel' plants were grown for 92 days under 16 day/night temperature (DT/NT) regimes and two photoperiods for a total of 32 environments. Temperatures ranged from 15 to 30 ± 1.5C. Photoperiod was either 9 hours (short days) or 9 hours plus a 4-hour night interruption (long days) using incandescent lamps. Photoperiod had no significant effect on either morphology or development rate. Frond length and leaflet count per frond were highly correlated with the average daily temperature (ADT). Frond length increased from 9.3 to 21.9 cm and leaflet count increased from 21 to 42 leaflets per frond as ADT increased from 15 to 30C. Solon count and frond orientation were highly correlated with the weighted difference (WDIF) between DT and NT. The weighted difference between DT and NT was equal to: (DT × photoperiod) - (NT × scotoperiod). The scotoperiod was inclusive of the night interruption. Stolon count increased as the weighted NT increased relative to the weighted DT, i.e., as WDIF decreased. In contrast, frond angle relative to the soil surface, i.e., frond orientation, increased as WDIF increased. Frond unfolding rate and total plant dry weight increased as temperature increased to ≈ 25C, then decreased.
Tomohiro Okada and Yoh-ichi Matsubara
values of five plants. Determination of free amino acids in plants. Sixteen weeks after AMF inoculation, plants were sampled and partitioned into ferns and storage roots from 10 plants, and all samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen. The samples for free
Kwang Jin Kim, Myeong Il Jeong, Dong Woo Lee, Jeong Seob Song, Hyoung Deug Kim, Eun Ha Yoo, Sun Jin Jeong, Seung Won Han, Stanley J. Kays, Young-Wook Lim, and Ho-Hyun Kim
. Woody and herbaceous foliage plants and ferns were acclimated at a light intensity of 20 ± 2 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 and the herbs and Korea native plants at 60 ± 3 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ; the photoperiod for all species was 12/12 h (day/night). Table 1
Jaejoon Kim and David J. Wolyn
Asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis ) is an herbaceous perennial plant in which the above-ground fern senesces and dies in the fall, leaving only the below-ground crown to overwinter. In southern Ontario, where air and soil temperatures of –20 and –5
Jessica D. Lubell
to meet the growing desire of landscapers and consumers to use native plants in landscaping. Native plants such as american filbert, buttonbush, northern bush honeysuckle, steeplebush, sweet fern, and sweet gale exhibit wide adaptability in natural
Daniel C. Brainard, John Bakker, D. Corey Noyes, and Norm Myers
relatively drought-tolerant, competition for moisture or nutrients from a living mulch may be detrimental to asparagus in dry years. Numerous studies have shown that inadequate moisture during asparagus fern growth can reduce production and storage of soluble
Abu Shamim Mohammad Nahiyan and Yoh-ichi Matsubara
was calculated by the following formula: Analysis of antioxidative abilities. Ten weeks after AMF inoculation and 8 weeks after Foa inoculation, 10 plants were sampled and partitioned into ferns and roots and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Analysis of