Organic vegetable production in the United States must comply with National Organic Program (NOP) standards [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2016 ]. The NOP defines compost as the product of a managed process through which microorganisms
Elsa S. Sánchez and Heather D. Karsten
Nutrient management on organic farms can be challenging ( Clark et al., 1999 ; Pimentel et al., 2005 ) for two main reasons. First, typical organic nutrient management strategies include the use of compost, manures, other organic amendments, and
For an increasing number of communities across the U. S., their question is no longer, “should we compost?” Rather, their question has become, “what should we compost, and how?” This paper will present information on the experience of various communities and comporting facilities in the collection, processing, and marketing of various compostable organic solid materials.
Craig Cogger, Rita Hummel, Jennifer Hart, and Andy Bary
, 2004 ). Beeson and Keller (2001) amended the entire planting bed and found 7.6 or 10.2 cm of yard waste compost incorporated to an 18-cm depth improved shoot growth, root elongation, and quality of transplanted azaleas. Potential benefits from organic
Francis R. Gouin
Compost varies according to content, comporting procedures, age, storage conditions and particle size. Compost made mostly from wood products will have a much lower nutrient and soluble salt concentration than one made from leaves, grass clippings, sewage sludge, manures or food processing waste. Compost from efficiently managed systems optimizing microbial activity will tend to have higher soluble salt levels than compost from piles that are neglected and/or undisturbed.
Regardless of which organic materials used in making compost it will have a pH between 6.2 and 7.2 when ready for use. The effectiveness of compost as a soil amendment and in formulating potting mixes is dependent on particle sizes and soluble salt concentrations. Particles should not be recognizable and less than 2.5 cm in diameter for optimum plant response. Soluble salt concentrations of the compost will determine rates of application and fertilizer regime.
Rafael A. Muchanga, Toshiyuki Hirata, and Hajime Araki
Improving soil quality and crop productivity is central to sustainable agriculture ( Kuo et al., 2001 ). Management practices such as cover cropping and compost application can influence tomato yield and soil quality. Cover crops can maintain or
Matthew D. Taylor, Rachel Kreis, and Lidia Rejtö
-based products ( Fain et al., 2008 ; Jackson et al., 2009 ), and different types of compost. Compost has been used as a horticultural substrate additive since the 1970s and is a viable replacement for some components used in commercial substrates, specifically
John J. Sloan, Raul I. Cabrera, Peter A.Y. Ampim, Steve A. George, and Wayne A. Mackay
such as compost and biosolids (BS). Because expanded shale can absorb water and soluble nutrients, it is possible that it would absorb nutrients released from mineralized organic matter and extend the time they are retained in the plant rooting zone
Jason Sanders, Tina Marie Waliczek, and Jean-Marc Gandonou
have a remaining capacity of 44 years ( Texas Commission for Environmental Quality, 2009 ). Diverting organic waste to processing facilities, such as composting facilities, will increase the life expectancy of landfills ( Beck, 2009 ). Currently in the
Yuncong Li, Edward Hanlon, George O'Connor, Jianjun Chen, and Maria Silveira
Most Florida soils are sandy or gravelly and exhibit low pH, low organic matter content, and poor water and nutrient holding capacities ( Brown et al., 1990 ). Studies conducted in Florida show that composts made from a number of organic waste