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Kevin E. McPhee, Robert S. Zemetra, Jack Brown, and James R. Myers

Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station manuscript no. 97705. This research is a contribution to the W-150 regional project and was supported by the Idaho Dry Bean Commission. This paper is a portion of a PhD dissertation submitted by K.E.M.

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Maricelis Acevedo Román, Albeiro Molina Castañeda, Juan Carlos Angel Sánchez, Carlos Germán Muñoz, and James S. Beaver

The inheritance of resistance to bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) was studied in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The original cross was made between breeding line PR9556-158, which produces deformed pods when infected with BGYMV, and PR9556-171, which has normal pod development when inoculated with the virus. Pod type was evaluated on plants from six generations (parental lines, F1, F2, F2:3, F3:4, and backcrosses of the F1 to both parents) at mid-pod fill (R8), ≈65 days after planting. The segregation patterns from the F2, F2:3, F3:4, and backcross populations were consistent with the hypothesis that a single dominant gene confers normal pod development in PR9556-171. When inoculated with BGYMV, the deformed pods of PR9556-158 produced fewer seeds per pod than PR9556-171, resulting in lower seed yield. The gene symbol Bgp-1 has been assigned for this dominant resistance gene that controls the normal pod reaction to BGYMV in common bean.

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Jose J. Velez, Mark J. Bassett, James S. Beaver, and Albeiro Molina

The inheritance of resistance to bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was studied in crosses between susceptible bean variety XAN176 and resistant breeding lines 9236-6 (T446/A429) and 9245-94 (DOR303/T968). Disease response data were taken on plants from four generations derived from each cross (parents, F1, F2, and backcrosses (BCs) of F1 to both parents) at 25 days after plants were inoculated with BGMV, using whiteflies (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) as vectors. The segregation ratios obtained from F2 and BC generations were consistent with the hypothesis that resistance in 9236-6, which prevents a chlorotic response, is conferred by a single recessive gene. The disease response in 9245-94 was controlled by two genes—a dominant gene controlling a dwarfing reaction and a recessive resistance gene preventing a chlorotic response to BGMV infection. An allelism test demonstrated that the gene controlling resistance in 9236-6 is nonallelic with the recessive gene controlling resistance in 9245-94. The gene symbol bgm is proposed for the recessive resistance gene (originally from A429) in 9236-6. The gene symbol bgm-2 is proposed for the recessive resistance gene (originally from DOR303) in 9245-94.

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Phillip N. Miklas, Kenneth F. Grafton, and Phillip E. McClean

We investigated the partial physiological resistance (PPR) of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to white mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) deBary. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was measured in detached stems inoculated with a growing mycelium of the pathogen. Noninoculated detached stems and whole plants were included as controls. Five bean cultivars-Upland, Bunsi, Sierra, UI-114, and Montcalm-and one breeding line-NY 5394-were tested; all varied in PPR to white mold disease. Greater PAL activity in the resistant NY 5394 than in the susceptible `Upland' suggests that PAL activity may be involved in the PPR of common beans to S. sclerotiorum.

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H.Z. Zaiter, D.P. Coyne, and J.R. Steadman

Published as Paper no. 8856, Journal Series, Nebraska Agricultural Research Division. Research was conducted under Title XII Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project-Univ. of Nebraska and Dominican Republic under AID Contract no. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00 and also

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M.M. Welsh and K.F. Grafton

Common bacterial blight, incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye, is a major bacterial disease of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Resistance to common bacterial blight has been identified in other Phaseolus species and resistance genes have been introgressed into P. vulgaris. The objective of this study was to characterize in dry bean the inheritance pattern of common bacterial blight-resistance genes derived from P. coccineus. Two common, bacterial blight-susceptible, dry bean cultivars were crossed with different common, bacterial blight-resistant dry bean lines with resistance derived from P. coccineus. F2 progeny were inoculated with Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli strain F19-W and were scored for disease reaction. The ratio of resistant to susceptible plants for F2 populations did not differ significantly from a 1 resistant: 3 susceptible ratio. The F3 segregation was obtained for only one cross and did not differ significantly from a 1 resistant: 2 heterozygous: 1 susceptible ratio, suggesting that the resistance introgressed from P. coccineus into dry bean was controlled by one recessive gene. Additionally, the range of symptom expression within the susceptible class provided evidence of other genes modifying the expression of resistance.

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Geunhwa Jung, Dermot P. Coyne, Paul W. Skroch, James Nienhuis, E. Arnaud-Santana, James Bokosi, H.M. Ariyarathne, James R. Steadman, James S. Beaver, and Shawn M. Kaeppler

the Title XII Bean/Cowpea CRSP (AID contract no. DNA-1310-GSS-6008-00). We also appreciate assistance of technicians Lisa Sutton and James Reiser. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal

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Soon O. Park, Dermot P. Coyne, Nedim Mutlu, James R. Steadman, and Geunhwa Jung

Common bacterial blight, incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp), is a serious disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). RAPD markers and flower color (V gene) previously had been reported to be associated with six QTL affecting leaf and pod resistance to Xcp. However, the markers for the QTL were not confirmed in different populations and environments to indicate their merit in breeding. Our objective was to determine if the associations of RAPD markers and the V gene with QTL for leaf and pod resistance to Xcp in a RI backcross population from the cross BC2F6 `PC-50' × XAN-159 and for leaf resistance to Xcp in a F2 population from a different cross Pinto `Chase' × XAN-159 could be confirmed. Among six QTL previously detected, five in the RI backcross population and three in the F2 population were confirmed to be associated with resistance to Xcp. The V gene and RAPD marker BC437.1050 on linkage group 5 were most consistently associated with leaf and pod resistance to two to five XCP strains in the RI backcross population and with leaf resistance to two Xcp strains in the F2 population. The confirmed marker BC437.1050 and V gene on linkage group 5, along with other resistance genes from other germplasm, could be used to pyramid the different genes into a bean cultivar to enhance the resistance to Xcp.

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H.M. Ariyarathne, D.P. Coyne, A.K. Vidaver, and K.M. Eskridge

Biometry. University of Nebraska Agricultural Research Division journal series paper no. 11970. Research was conducted under Title XII Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project, Univ. of Nebraska, Univ. of Puerto Rico, and Dominican Republic under AID Contract No. DAN 1310

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G. Acquaah, T.G. Isleib, and A.E. Ferguson

The future of molecular markers in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding and genetics lies in the discovery of more useful markers than now available. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE analysis revealed four phaseolin types, “S,” “T,” “C,” and “H,” in proportions of 23.5%, 49.2%, 24.8%, and 2.5%, respectively. Molecular heterogeneity of phaseolin subunits was not apparent. On the basis of the phaseolin types and seed size, ≈75% of the landraces from Malawi probably were introduced from the Andean primary center of common bean domestication. The remaining 25% were small-seeded and probably originated from the Meso-American center of domestication of common bean. In Malawi, some amount of hybridization has occurred between genotypes from the two centers of domestication.