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Mengzi Zhang, Jie Yang, Huitang Pan, and Brian J. Pearson

) are synthetic chemical compounds or extractions of natural plant hormones that regulate plant growth and development. They are often used to influence plant cell division, rooting, germination, branching, flowering, and abscission at lower

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Christopher J. Currey, Kellie J. Walters, and Kenneth G. McCabe

., 2011 ). Commercial recommendations for controlling lantana are to apply foliar sprays containing chlormequat chloride every 2 weeks starting ≈1 week after pinching ( Nau, 2011 ). Numerous studies report the effect of foliar sprays containing chlormequat

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Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Lee Klossner, and Neal Eash

chrysanthemums [$11.497 million (w)] (USDA NASS, 2015). The groundcover habit, exemplified by MN Sel’n. 90-275-27, is a genetically controlled, stable trait without the need for plant growth regulator or other chemical applications or hand manipulation to achieve

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Amir Rezazadeh, Richard L. Harkess, and Guihong Bi

increase other functional aspects, such as resistance against both abiotic and biotic stresses ( Navarro et al., 2007 ). Several studies reported the effectiveness of these chemicals in reducing the unfavorable effects of water stress ( Banón et al., 2001

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Linsey A. Newton and Erik S. Runkle

temperature during the experiment was 23.8 °C, and the actual mean photosynthetic daily light integral at plant level was 4.6 mol·m −2 ·d −1 . Chemical application. The concentrations of paclobutrazol used were based on a preliminary trial on Phalaenopsis

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Amir Rezazadeh, Richard L. Harkess, and Guihong Bi

, OH). Plants were pinched 2 weeks after transplanting leaving two to three nodes. PGRs were applied when the new axillary shoots were 3 to 5 cm long (≈14 d after pinching). In the first experiment, four PGRs at various rates were tested including

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Jared Barnes, Brian Whipker, Wayne Buhler, and Ingram McCall

as manipulation of light or temperature, inducing water or nutrient stress, restricting root growth, and mechanical means such as pinching or brushing, application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) continues to be commonly used to control height

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Amy Barker, Ingram McCall, and Brian E. Whipker

number have been tested on plumbago. The current recommendation is to apply an ethephon foliar spray of 1000 mg·L −1 1 week before pinching ( Whipker, 2015 ). A previous study evaluated the effectiveness of paclobutrazol and uniconazole foliar sprays and

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Alejandro R. Puerta, Suguru Sato, Yutaka Shinohara, and Toru Maruo

channel with a 1% slope (longitudinal), a catchment tank, and a pump (C-P60J; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). The mNFT system differed from the cNFT in two aspects: a second sideward slope (transversal, 3%) and an irrigation hose (Evaflow A; Mitsui Chemicals

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Stephen S. Miller and Thomas Tworkoski

increase fruit size at harvest. Hand thinning is expensive and, with recent labor shortages, is more problematic for growers to complete in a timely manner. Chemical thinners have long been available and used in apple production ( Byers, 2003 ). Thinning at