This article presents findings from the first 3 years of implementing an organic land care training program for landscapers, including landscaper attitudes, lessons learned, and the potential role of extension. Results of a needs assessment as well as discussions with organic practitioners provided evidence that New Jersey lacked in-depth training needed to assist practitioners in determining acceptable practices when offering organic services to their clientele. As a result, Rutgers University convened an organic land care working group and developed a certificate program for professionals with the long-term goal of promoting healthy soil, enhancing biodiversity, and reducing polluted runoff from managed landscapes. Thus far the program has been attended by 63 landscapers with 48 fulfilling the program requirements. Follow-up surveys with participants of the first 2 years showed that 38% of the 1163 acres (470.6 ha) under their management are either in transition or have been completely converted to organic management. Respondents reported a significant decrease in use of synthetic fertilizers and significant increase in use of organic fertilizer. Median synthetic pesticide usage decreased by 40%. Respondents reported since attending the program they were more effective at a number of practices including removing invasives and installing native plants, installing rain gardens, reducing stormwater runoff, and reducing irrigation. Focusing on the science, patience in transitioning, and understanding there are no “one size fits all” organic programs have been important lessons learned by experienced practitioners. Clientele acceptance, product efficacy, and finding skilled staff were cited as consistent challenges. These results indicate that extension can play a lead role in conducting applied research and providing relevant, effective educational programming for landscapers in the organic land care field.
Michele Bakacs, Amy Rowe, William T. Hlubik, and Jan Zientek
Don J. Durzan and M.D. Durzan
Prospects for the establishment of joint-ventured agribusiness in developing countries are a function of international agreements, local risk conditions, business networks, and banking systems that are willing to support the innovative transfer, protection, assessment, and commercialization of biotechnology. The integration of biotechnology will occur only if truly convincing practices emerge that enhance biodiversity and the competitiveness of sustainable production, utilization, and marketing cycles. Integration also depends on agreements on intellectual property rights, plant protection, trade and tariffs, price stabilization, and non-trade-distorting policies. These policies deal with broad issues in research, pest and disease control, environmental quality, germplasm conservation, resource retirement programs, and even with crop and disaster insurance. Measures derived from these policies will apply to novel processes and to organisms that have been genetically engineered and approved for release into the environment. For developing countries, much more attention will have to be paid to biological diversity and sustainable balances among intercropped agriforest and horticultural production systems. Balances should be compatible with regional and local customs and practices before genetically engineered “green goods and services” are introduced in the marketplace. Recombinant DNA technologies are currently better-suited to deal on a “gene-by-gene” basis, with commodity surpluses and material conversions involving more concentrated and industrialized processes than with field plantations of genetically engineered, complex, and long-lived crops that may require considerable adaptive plasticity. In most countries with developing economies, the integration of recombinant DNA technology represents a “special problematique” involving politico- and socioeconomic and environmental factors. Barriers to transfer and integration may involve evolving international agreements, public acceptance, resource over-exploitation, environmental degradation, rapid insect and disease resistance, contaminated water and food supplies, reduced quality of life, labor quality, corruption, crime, farmers' rights, germplasm conservation, and lack of protection of intellectual property, among other factors. Hence, the timing and mode of transferring biotechnology needs considerable impact assessment on a case-by-case basis.
Thomas E. Marler
The sixth mass extinction event is unfolding ( Ceballos et al., 2017 ). Unlike the historical mass events ( Raup and Sepkoski, 1982 ), the contemporary phenomenon is anthropogenic. This biodiversity crisis is one of the defining components of the
Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards
germplasm valuable for mitigation of global climate change. Adaptive differentiation forms the basis of biodiversity and serves as a major focus of evolutionary biology. The details focus not only on the specific genetic architecture and functional
Gayle M. Volk
information about their collections. The set of Biodiversity Information Standards, as organized by the Taxonomic Data Working Group (TDWG) ( Darwin Core Task Group, 2009 ), includes fields for the taxonomic description (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family
Donald N. Maynard
—The Secretive and Seductive Marvels of Orchids; Floriegium—The Unseen Realm of Flowers; Proteus—Revealing the Hidden Architecture of Adaptations; Zingiberaceae—The Rich Biodiversity of Ginger; and Botanicus—The Botanical World, A Compendium of Exceptional
Yan Chen and Jayesh B. Samtani
Asia is a region rich in plant biodiversity with many centers of origin for numerous horticultural crops. Plant germplasm from Asia is thus important for new crop development in North America. Globalization and increased immigration have opened up
Marietta M. Loehrlein
to broader and deeper information on each subject. This book is a good resource for those concerned with biodiversity conservation, from scientists to policy-makers to farmers.
Lyn A. Gettys and Michael A. Schnelle
range, invasive exotic haplotypes of native species, and how to manage ecosystems to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem function. Coordinator L.A. Gettys started the workshop by outlining the arguments against native status for waterlettuce ( Pistia
Ian G. Lane, James Wolfin, Eric Watkins, and Marla Spivak
). Despite this progress, modifying landscapes to meet both anthropogenic and biodiversity conservation goals in tandem remains an important area of research, and has been coined reconciliation ecology ( Rosenzweig, 2003 ). Urban areas are a sector of