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Patrick H. Kingston, Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine Strik

relatively novel idea ( Fulcher et al., 2015 ). Substrate mixes used in nurseries frequently contain peatmoss, coir, bark, and/or perlite, but it is unclear whether these components are also suitable for longer term fruit production of blueberry. Partially

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James E. Altland, M. Gabriela Buamscha, and Donald A. Horneck

Ornamental container crops in the Pacific Northwest are grown primarily in douglas fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). Similar to pine ( Pinus taeda L.) bark in the southeast United States, DFB comprises the highest portion

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James E. Altland and Charles R. Krause

Pine bark is the primary component in container nursery substrates, comprising 60% to 80% by volume of most substrate blends. Pine bark is a commodity used by other industries including fuel generation, fiber ( Lu et al., 2006 ), charcoal, landscape

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Amy Fulcher, Forbes Walker, James Altland, Wesley Wright, and Neal Eash

-rich by-product of pyrolysis, can reduce substrate pore size by nesting between larger particles of pine bark and providing greater water-holding capacity. This reduction in substrate pore size has been demonstrated to increase the amount of available

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester, Bahar Fallahi, and Shahla Mahdavi

) (Agusti et al., 1998; Fernandez-Escobar et al., 1987 ) and loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica) ( Agusti et al., 2005 ). However, bark girdling may impair trees and vine health if callusing is slow or inadequate ( Fallahi et al., 2017 ; Fernandez-Escobar et al

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Andrea C. Landaverde, Jacob H. Shreckhise, and James E. Altland

evaluate the effect of storage duration, storage temperature, and filtration before storage on pH, EC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), and nutrient ion concentrations of PT samples of pine bark– and peat-based substrates

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Magdalena Zazirska Gabriel, James E. Altland, and James S. Owen Jr

Nursery producers create their own substrates by mixing two or more components. Components are often regional and based on available resources local to the nursery operation. Outdoor container nurseries use bark as the primary component mixed with

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Bin Wu, Runshi Xie, Gary W. Knox, Hongmin Qin, and Mengmeng Gu

Crapemyrtle bark scale [CMBS ( Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae )] is a sap-sucking hemipteran native to some Asian countries ( Kozár et al., 2013 ). Since initially detected and identified in Texas in 2004 ( Merchant et al., 2014 ), the CMBS has

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, Jake F. Browder, J. Roger Harris, and Alex X. Niemiera

). Of these, research and development of new substrates to replace conventionally used peatmoss and pine bark (PB) substrates have increased in recent years. In addition to developing and using new substrates, much work has focused on managing fertility

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and John R. Seiler

Beginning in the early 1970s, the search for organic soilless substrates for container production has been an important horticultural research topic with the introduction of hardwood and softwood barks as the primary component in nursery container