the induction of roots from shoots ( Bonga, 1977 ). Adventitious shoots of ‘Jincuilei’ readily rooted in half-strength MS medium containing 14.76 μ m IBA with a rooting percentage as high as 100% (data not shown). This ease in rooting characteristic
Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Yongxin Li, Qiying Nie, and Junbin Li
Arthur Villordon, Don LaBonte, Nurit Firon, and Edward Carey
kg·ha −1 ). Fig. 5. Representative adventitious root samples from split-root experiments. The adventitious roots that were still attached to the plant were floated on waterproof trays to facilitate image capture. Corresponding nitrogen (N) rates for
Arthur Villordon and Christopher Clark
’ sweetpotato adventitious root obtained from a plant subjected to high Meloidogyne incognita inoculum level ( A ). The same sample was scanned in gray scale for image analysis using WinRHIZO ( B ), showing nematode galls on lateral roots (LR) (inset, C
Erin J. Yafuso, Paul R. Fisher, Ana C. Bohórquez, and James E. Altland
( Gislerød, 1983 ; Healy, 2008 ), and gradually changes to wet-dry cycles following the emergence of adventitious roots to provide aeration ( Loach, 1988 ). In propagation, many cells are also shorter than 5 cm ( Huang and Fisher, 2014 ; Milks et al., 1989c
Takuya Tetsumura and Hisajiro Yukinaga
Microshoots of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Jiro) were rooted in vitro. The roots were excised and cultured on solidified Murashige and Skoog medium. After 20 days of culture, adventitious shoots formed spontaneously and directly from the roots. Of all the tested cytokinins, 10–5 m zeatin in combination with 10–8 m IAA was the most effective in stimulating production of adventitious shoots. CPPU and 2iP also were effective cytokinins. Addition of a high concentration of auxin, especially 2,4-D, to the medium inhibited adventitious shoot formation. The percentage of root segments forming adventitious shoots increased with increasing segment length. Almost all of the longest roots (4 to 6 cm) formed adventitious shoots. Chemical names used: 6-benzyladenine (BA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP); N-phenyl-N′-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)urea (CPPU).
Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane
Post-planting root development of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) on a well-drained site was compared with that on a site with a high water table. Container-grown red maple planted in 1985 were excavated in 1988 and cross-sectional root area (CSRA) calculated for roots >1 cm diameter, 5 cm beyond the edge of the original container rootball. Adventitious roots were generated in the field after planting, not in the container. Total adventitious CSRA was three times greater than CSRA of roots generated from the original container-produced root system. The number of adventitious roots (7.6) generated from the trunk and primary root after planting was greater than the number of roots originating from the existing root system (4.2). Adventitious root origin on both sites was within 5 cm of the soil surface, above the often circling, kinked, or twisted roots found within the container root ball. Four of the five largest roots were of adventitious origin. Root number, size, and growth rate were not modified by differences in cultural and environmental conditions between sites.
In 1999, `Sweet Banana' pepper plants were grown under clean cultivation or SMR—red, silver, or black polyethylene mulches. Plants in each of three replications per treatment were field-set on 15 June. On 22 Sept., plants were excavated, and their root systems were examined. The total number of roots per plant at 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, and 25-cm depths and 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, 50-, and 60-cm distances from plant stems were recorded. Distribution and architecture of the root systems also were examined. Plants grown under clean cultivation developed 50 to 60 adventitious roots each, while those grown under red mulch developed about 20, and those under black and silver mulch about nine adventitious roots each. In all treatments, the adventitious roots radiated from the stem at an oblique, downward 35° angle. No plants had vertical roots. Root system architecture was similar among treatments, with 40% of the roots in the upper 5 cm of soil and 70% in the upper 10 cm. Thirty percent of roots were within 10 cm of the plant stem, and 50% were within 20 cm. Nearly 100% of the roots were located within 40 cm of the plant stem. Root count decreased with increasing depth and distance from the plant stem. Plants grown beneath the silver mulch produced the greatest number of lateral roots, followed by plants grown in clean cultivation and under black mulch. Plants grown under red mulch produced the fewest roots. Differences among treatments were significant. Colored mulches influence the total number of adventitious and lateral roots but not the root system architecture of pepper plants.
In 1999, `Sweet Banana' pepper [Capsicum annuum L. (Grossum Group)] plants were grown under clean cultivation or with red, silver, or black polyethylene selective reflecting (SMR) mulches over the soil surface. Plants in each of three replications per treatment were field-set on 15 June. On 22 Sept., the plants were excavated and their root systems examined using a trench profile method and a succession of trench wall slices. The total numbers of roots of each plant at depths of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm from the plant stem were recorded. Distribution and architecture of the root systems were also examined. Plants grown under clean cultivation developed 50 to 60 adventitious roots each, while those grown under red mulch developed ≈20 and those under black and silver mulch about nine adventitious roots each. In all treatments, the adventitious roots radiated downward from the stem at an angle of 35° from the horizontal. No plants had vertical roots. Root system architecture was similar among treatments, with 40% of the roots in the upper 5 cm of soil and 70% in the upper 10 cm. Thirty percent of the roots were within 10 cm, 50% within 20 cm, and nearly 100% within 40 cm of the stem. Root numbers decreased with increasing depth and distance from the stem. The greatest number of lateral roots were produced under silver mulch, intermediate numbers under clean cultivation and black mulch, and the fewest roots under red mulch. Colored mulches influenced the total number of adventitious and lateral roots but not the root system architecture of pepper plants.
Arthur Q. Villordon and Don R. LaBonte
Our research examined whether plants originating from adventitious sprouts from fleshy sweetpotato roots are genetically more variable than plants that arise from pre-existing meristematic regions, i.e., nodes. Our study compared one plant each of `Jewel', `Sumor', and L87-95 clonally propagated for seven generations both nodally and through adventitious sprouts. PCR-based analysis of 60 samples (10 nodal and 10 adventitiously derived plants/genotype) showed 20% polymorphism among adventitious materials vs. 6% among nodally derived plants. An “analysis of molecular variance” showed that differences between propagation methods accounted for 30% of the total marker variability. Our results support previous findings that, relative to non-meristematic materials, meristematic regions strictly control cell division and DNA synthesis that exclude DNA duplication and other irregularities.
Rolston St. Hilaire, Carlos A. Fierro Berwart, and Carlos A. Pérez-Muñoz
Mussaendas (Mussaenda spp.) are ornamental shrubs, and some cultivars are difficult to root. This study was conducted to explore how adventitious roots initiate and develop in the cultivar Rosea and to determine if anatomical events are associated with difficulty in rooting stem cuttings. Stem cuttings were treated with 5, 10, 15 mmol IBA, or distilled water, and sampled every 2 days over 26 days to observe adventitious root formation and development. Adventitious roots initiated from phloem parenchyma cells. Cuttings treated with 15 mmol IBA had a mean of 18 root primordia per basal 1 cm of cutting after 10 days. Primordia were absent in nontreated cuttings at 10 days. These results suggest that nontreated cuttings are difficult to root because few primordia are produced. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).