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Chieri Kubota, Michael A. McClure, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Michael G. Bausher, and Erin N. Rosskopf

producing transplants under artificial lighting have been recently adapted to commercial propagators after the successful development of a commercially available transplant production unit in Japan ( Tsuchiya, 2003 ) ( Fig. 3 ). Research directed toward

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Katherine F. Garland, Stephanie E. Burnett, Michael E. Day, and Marc W. van Iersel

output for each individual line to determine the total volume of water applied to each plant over the entire investigation. Leaching did not occur. Supplemental lighting was provided by 600-W high-pressure sodium lights (PL2000; P.L. Light Systems

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta and Celina Gómez

increase with DLI, light use efficiency is greater when plants are grown under lower DLIs ( He et al., 2001 ; van Iersel, 2017 ). Accordingly, van Iersel (2017) showed that dynamic lighting (i.e., lighting adapted to crop-specific photosynthetic capacity

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Tessa Pocock

truly novel. LED lighting systems have opened up a new field of dynamic research for plant scientists, horticulturists, and luminaire manufacturers. International large-scale horticultural research on the benefits of using LEDs in horticulture began in

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Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gómez, Mario G. Ferruzzi, and Cary A. Mitchell

potential shading effects of the LED lighting systems; D—25% blue, 60% red, and 15% far red (peak wavelengths: 456, 636, and 730 nm); E—30% blue, 70% red, and 0% far red (peak wavelengths: 442 and 638 nm). Before the beginning of the experiment, all LED

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Will Wheeler, Reagan Wytsalucy, Brent Black, Grant Cardon, and Bruce Bugbee

devoted to the selection of rootstocks that might confer tolerance to drought ( Ernst et al., 2012 ). Selection of rootstocks adapted to drought would benefit arid fruit-growing regions. Native American populations in southwestern North America, including

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Celina Gómez and Juan Jiménez

). Similarly, using high PPF s can increase production costs associated with sole-source lighting and may induce undesirable photo-oxidative stress ( Murchie and Niyogi, 2011 ; Samuolienė; et al., 2009 ). EOP radiation is a cost-effective, preharvest

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, Qinglu Ying, and Youbin Zheng

efficient greenhouse lighting Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49 139 147 Smillie, R.M. Hetherington, S.E. 1999 Photoabatement by anthocyanin shields photosynthetic systems from light stress Photosynthetica 36 451 463 Tamulaitis, G. Duchovskis, P. Bliznikas, Z

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Qingwu Meng, Jennifer Boldt, and Erik S. Runkle

), supplemental lighting from high-pressure sodium lamps (PL2000; P.L. Light Systems, Beamsville, ON, Canada) was automatically switched on to provide an additional PPFD of 60–90 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 at plant height when the ambient PPFD was <185 μmol·m −2 ·s −1

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Zhengnan Yan, Dongxian He, Genhua Niu, Qing Zhou, and Yinghua Qu

Plant factories with artificial lighting have many advantages over traditional production systems (e.g., greenhouse and open-field) for leafy greens, herbs, and transplants production because of high resource use efficiency, high productivity, and