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Qingwu Meng, Jennifer Boldt, and Erik S. Runkle

consumer preferences of organoleptic properties. However, few studies of LED lighting have investigated spectral regulation of crop flavor and texture. In one study, compared with B+R radiation, B+R+white radiation and white fluorescent light improved

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Heidi Marie Wollaeger and Erik S. Runkle

opportunity to test the effects of specific wavebands of light on plant growth and development. LEDs used for sole-source photosynthetic lighting can enable commercial growers to produce plants with desired characteristics and to optimize the spectra for each

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Marc W. van Iersel, Geoffrey Weaver, Michael T. Martin, Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, Erico Mattos, and Mark Haidekker

., 2013 ). In plant factories, lighting accounts for ≈40% of the total recurring costs ( Watanabe, 2011 ). The overall efficiency of converting electric light energy into biomass is complicated by the nature of the light reactions of photosynthesis. Not

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, Qinglu Ying, and Youbin Zheng

, 2013 ) and produce highly uniform crops year round. Light is one of the most influential environmental factors on plant growth and morphology, especially in indoor farming where artificial lighting provides the SS of radiation for photosynthesis and

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Yuya Mochizuki, Saori Sekiguchi, Naomi Horiuchi, Thanda Aung, and Isao Ogiwara

supplemental lighting on growth and yield of strawberry ( Hidaka et al., 2013 ; Inada and Matsuno, 1985 ; Shishido et al., 1995 ) and photosynthetic characteristics of strawberry leaf blades ( Ogiwara et al., 2003 ), the manner of enhancing leaf

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Celina Gómez, Christopher J. Currey, Ryan W. Dickson, Hye-Ji Kim, Ricardo Hernández, Nadia C. Sabeh, Rosa E. Raudales, Robin G. Brumfield, Angela Laury-Shaw, Adam K. Wilke, Roberto G. Lopez, and Stephanie E. Burnett

: Smart lighting. Springer Nature, Singapore van Iersel, M.W. Gianino, D. 2017 An adaptive control approach for light-emitting diode lights can reduce the energy costs of supplemental lighting in greenhouses HortScience 52 72 77 van Iersel, M.W. Weaver, G

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Robin G. Brumfield, Laura B. Kenny, Alyssa J. DeVincentis, Andrew K. Koeser, Sven Verlinden, A.J. Both, Guihong Bi, Sarah T. Lovell, and J. Ryan Stewart

facilities and mechanized equipment) used to produce the plants. As reported by Koeser et al. (2014) , most of the carbon emissions (expressed in kg-CO 2 equivalents) came from the electrical consumption used for supplemental lighting, whereas wood heating

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Zhengnan Yan, Dongxian He, Genhua Niu, Qing Zhou, and Yinghua Qu

Plant factories with artificial lighting have many advantages over traditional production systems (e.g., greenhouse and open-field) for leafy greens, herbs, and transplants production because of high resource use efficiency, high productivity, and

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Tessa Pocock

truly novel. LED lighting systems have opened up a new field of dynamic research for plant scientists, horticulturists, and luminaire manufacturers. International large-scale horticultural research on the benefits of using LEDs in horticulture began in

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta and Celina Gómez

increase with DLI, light use efficiency is greater when plants are grown under lower DLIs ( He et al., 2001 ; van Iersel, 2017 ). Accordingly, van Iersel (2017) showed that dynamic lighting (i.e., lighting adapted to crop-specific photosynthetic capacity