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Nirmal K. Hedau, Shri Dhar, Vinay Mahajan, Hari S. Gupta, Karambir S. Hooda, and Vedprakash

French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important vegetable known as green beans, which is widely cultivated during winter in the subtropics and early spring to fall in temperate zones throughout the world. In India, it is grown in the

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Emilie Proulx, Yavuz Yagiz, M. Cecilia, N. Nunes, and Jean-Pierre Emond

regions ( Orzolek et al., 2000 ). In 2001, the collection of the Food and Agriculture Organization included 26,500 Phaseolus vulgaris entries, reflecting a large genetic diversity ( CIAT, 2001 ). Such diversity can explain the wide variation in shelf

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Jelka Šustar-Vozlič, Marko Maras, Branka Javornik, and Vladimir Meglič

There is a long tradition of common bean cultivation in Slovenia, which has resulted in the development of numerous landraces in addition to newly established cultivars. The genetic diversity of 100 accessions from the Genebank of the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia (AIS) were evaluated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and phaseolin seed protein. Twenty-seven standard accessions of known Mesoamerican and Andean origin, 10 wild Phaseolus vulgaris accessions and two related species, P. coccineus L. and P. lunatus L., were also included. Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 303 polymorphic bands, indicating a relatively high level of genetic diversity. Based on the marker data, unweighted pair group method with arithmethic mean (UPGMA) analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) all P. vulgaris accessions were separated into three well-defined groups. Two groups consisted of accessions of Mesoamerican and Andean origin, while the third was comprised of only four wild P. vulgaris accessions. A set of Slovene accessions formed a well-defined sub-group within the Andean cluster, showing their unique genetic structure. These data were supported by phaseolin analysis, which also revealed additional variants of “C” and “T” phaseolin types. The results are in agreement with previous findings concerning diversification of common bean germplasm introduced in Europe.

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Geunhwa Jung, Paul Skroch, James Nienhuis, and Dermot Coyne

One of the highest levels of common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance identified in Phaseolus vulgaris is found in XAN-159, which was developed for leaf resistance to CBB through six generations of pedigree selection of progenies derived from the interspecific cross [(`Pinto UI 114' × PI 319441) × P. acutifolius PI 319443] × `Masterpiece'. A RAPD genetic linkage map was previously constructed in a recombinant inbred population derived from the common bean cross PC-50 × XAN-159 for identification of genomic regions associated with bacterial disease resistance in XAN-159. To confirm that chromosomal regions associated with CBB resistance in XAN-159 were introgressed from tepary bean, we investigated the parentage of each genomic interval in XAN-159 by studying the genomic constitutions of the four different parents involved in the pedigree. The results indicate that all genomic regions associated with CBB resistance contain intervals derived exclusively from tepary bean. The uniqueness of marker polymorphisms associated with resistance to CBB in XAN-159 will allow the application of marker assisted selection for these resistance genes in most populations of common bean.

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H.Z. Zaiter, D.P. Coyne, and J.R. Steadman

Ten dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars/lines with differential reactions to rust were used in growth chamber experiments to determine rust [Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger var. appendiculutus, (U a)], and common bacterial blight Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (E.F. Sm.) Dews. (X c p)] reactions on leaves when coinoculated with both pathogens. The X c p-U a necrosis symptoms were very different from those caused by X c p alone. Depending on the level of host susceptibility to rust, the X c p reaction remained confined within the rust pustule or spread beyond the pustule area, causing a necrosis of the entire leaf. Prior infection of bean seedlings with bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), NY-15 strain, reduced rust pustule size, but did not affect the reaction to X c p. Screening with X c p and BCMV can be done at the same time during the early vegetative stage, but the interactions of U a with X c p and of BCMV with U a need to be considered in screening for resistance.

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N.C. Yorio, G.W. Stutte, D.S. DeVilliers, R.M. Wheeler, and R.L. Langhans

Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Etna, a dry bean variety, and cv. Hystyle, a snap bean variety, were grown at 400 and 1200 μmol·m-2·s-1 CO2 to determine the effects of CO2 enrichment on plant growth and stomatal conductance. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers for 70 days at each CO2 level using nutrient film technique hydroponics. An 18-h light/6-h dark photoperiod was maintained for each test, with a corresponding thermoperiod of 28 °C/24 °C and constant 65% RH. Diurnal stomatal conductance measurements were made with a steady-state porometer at 28 days after planting (DAP) and 49 DAP. As expected, plant growth and yield was consistently increased for each cultivar when plants were grown at 1200 μmol·m-2·s-1 CO2 compared to 400 μmol·m-2·s-1 CO2. Stomatal conductance measured during the light period showed an expected decrease for each cultivar when grown at 1200 μmol·m-2·s-1 CO2 compared to 400 μmol·m-2·s-1 CO2. However, during the dark period, stomatal conductance was higher for each cultivar grown at 1200 μmol·m-2·s-1 CO2. These results suggest a stomatal opening effect in the dark when plants are exposed to enriched levels of CO2. Tests are underway to investigate the effects of CO2 levels greater than 1200 μmol·m-2·s-1 on the growth and stomatal conductance of bean.

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John L. Jifon and David W. Wolfe

Average global surface temperatures are predicted to rise due to increasing atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Attempts to predict plant response to CO2 must take into account possible temperature effects on phenology and reproductive sink capacity for carbohydrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of atmospheric CO2 partial pressure [35 Pa ambient CO2 (aCO2) vs. 70 Pa elevated CO2 (eCO2)] and temperature (26/15 vs. 35/21 °C day/night) on short- and long-term net CO2 assimilation (An) and growth of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). During early vegetative development [14-31 days after planting (DAP)], An, and relative growth rate (RGR) at eCO2 were significantly greater at the supra-optimum (35/21 °C) than at the optimum (26/15 °C) temperature. At 24 DAP, the CO2 stimulation of An by eCO2 was 49% and 89% at optimum and supra-optimum temperature, respectively, and growth enhancement was 48% and 72% relative to plants grown at aCO2. This high temperature-induced growth enhancement was accompanied by an up-regulation of An of eCO2-grown plants. In contrast, during later reproductive stages (31-68 DAP) the eCO2 stimulation of An was significantly less at the supra-optimum than at optimum temperature. This was associated with reduced seed set, greater leaf carbohydrate accumulation, and down-regulation of An at the higher temperature. At final harvest (68 DAP), the eCO2 stimulation of total dry weight was 31% and 14% at optimum and supra-optimum temperature respectively, and eCO2 stimulation of seed dry weight was 39% and -18% at optimum and supra-optimum temperature, respectively. These data indicate substantial shifts in the response to eCO2 during different phenological stages, and suggest that impaired reproductive development at high temperature could reduce the potential for CO2 stimulation of photosynthesis and productivity in bean and possibly other heat-sensitive species.

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Geunhwa Jung, Dermot P. Coyne, Paul W. Skroch, James Nienhuis, E. Arnaud-Santana, James Bokosi, H.M. Ariyarathne, James Steadman, and James S. Beaver

Common blight, web blight, and rust, incited by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp) and the fungal pathogens Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk (Tc) and Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.:Pers) Unger, respectively, are important diseases of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives of were to construct a linkage map, and to locate CBB, rust, and WB resistances and plant architecture traits using RAPDs. Ten linkage groups were identified. Eighty-nine RAPD markers and rust resistance were mapped in 128 RI lines of the cross BAC-6 and HT-7719. Regression analysis and interval mapping using MAPMAKER/QTL were used to identify genomic regions involved in the genetic control of the traits. One, two, two, and three putative QTLs were identified for leaf, seed, and pod reactions to Xcp, and foliar reaction to Tc. These regions accounted for 11%, 9%, 32%, and 30% of the phenotypic variation in the resistances. Two, two, and three regions were identified for plant uprightness, branch density, and pod distribution. These regions accounted for 27%, 13%, and 16% of the phenotypic variation. Unassigned marker G17d influenced some of the phenotypic variation in all three traits. A rust resistance gene controlling pustule size on primary leaves was located in linkage group 1.

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N.C. Yorio, G.W. Stutte, G.D. Goins, D.S. de Villiers, and R.M. Wheeler

The effects of planting density and short-term changes in photoperiod on the growth and photosynthesis of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated. Two cultivars of bean (cv. Etna, a dry bean variety; cv. Hystyle, a snap bean variety) were grown using nutrient film technique hydroponics in a walk-in growth chamber with a 12 h/12 h (light/dark) photoperiod and a corresponding thermoperiod of 28/24 °C (light/dark) and constant 65% relative humidity. Lighting for the chamber consisted of VHO fluorescent lamps and irradiance at canopy level was 400 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF. For each cultivar, plants were grown at densities of 16 or 32 plants/m2. Short-term photoperiod changes were imposed during vegetative growth (21-29 DAP) and pod-fill (42-57 DAP). From the base 12 h/12h (light/dark) photoperiod, lighting in the chamber was cycled to provide 18 h/06 h (light/dark) or 24 h/0 h(continuous light) for 48 h. Diurnal single leaf net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and net assimilation vs. internal CO2 (Aci) measurements were taken during the short-term photoperiod adjustments. Results showed that there was no difference between cultivars or planting density with regard to total biomass or single leaf photosynthetic rates, but cv. Etna produced 35% more edible biomass than cv. Hystyle. Additionally, there was no effect of short-term photoperiod adjustment on single leaf Pn or Aci.

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Geunhwa Jung, Dermot P. Coyne, E. Arnaud-Santana, James Bokosi, Shawn M. Kaeppler, Paul W. Skroch, and James Nienhuis

Common bacterial blight(CBB) and rust diseases, incited by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp) and Uromyces appendiculatus, respectively, are important diseases of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives were to construct a molecular linkage map, to locate CBB resistances, rust resistances and leaf pubescence using RAPDs. Sixteen linkage groups with 22 unassigned markers were identified. 178 RAPD markers and 8 morphological markers were mapped in a Population of 70 RI lines. Regression analysis and interval mapping using MAPMAKER/QTL were used to identify genomic regions involved in the genetic control of the traits. One, two, and three putative QTLs were identified for seed, pod and leaf reactions. These regions accounted for 18%, 25%, and 35% of the phenotypic variation in CBB resistance. A chromosome region on linkage group 1 carried factors influencing all three traits. Rust resistance genes controlling the reactions on the primary and on the 4th trifoliolate leaves (adult plant resistance) were located in linkage group 16. The genes for abaxial leaf pubescence was located on linkage group 9.