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Zhong-Bin Wu, Hsin-Mei Ku, Yuh-Kun Chen, Chung-Jan Chang, and Fuh-Jyh Jan

( Fig. 3 ). The Asia I cluster contains 15 isolates from India (apple, cherry, peach, plum, and quince), Japan (apple), and Taiwan (pear, LTS2) ( Fig. 3 ). Comparisons of CP genes of 15 ACLSV isolates in Asia I group revealed 94.8% to 100% of amino acid

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Yan-xin Duan, Ying Xu, Ran Wang, and Chun-hui Ma

frequently reported, little has been done on Asian pear cultivars. Prohexadione calcium (P-Ca) inhibits the biosynthesis of gibberellin ( Evans et al., 1999 ; Rademacher et al., 2004 ). Compared with other three triazole growth inhibitors, P-Ca has low

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Akihiro Itai, Takaaki Igori, Naoko Fujita, Mayumi Egusa, Motoichiro Kodama, and Hideki Murayama

, powdery mildew, brown spot, and fire blight is an important breeding objective ( Bell et al., 1996 ). In Asian pears on the other hand, resistance against fungal diseases such as scab, rust, and black spot is receiving attention with resistance to black

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Yu Zong, Ping Sun, Xiaoyan Yue, Qingfeng Niu, and Yuanwen Teng

imperative for better management ( Atangana et al., 2010 ; Boccacci et al., 2013 ). Pyrus betulaefolia , as the most popular pear rootstock in China and other east Asian countries for its good adaptability to versatile environments ( Okubo and Sakuratani

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Jules Janick

hearts as sacrifice, and cannibalism. Archaeological evidence indicated that the New and Old Worlds were once connected through the Bering Strait and Asian peoples migrated to the Americas ≈50 thousand years ago. Ironically, Columbus, in searching for

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Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras, Victor Avilez-Peraza, Adan Fimbres-Fontes, Ruben Macias-Duarte, and Jose L. Miranda-Blanco

Pear production in Mexico is low; there are about 4500 ha. One of the main problems in this tree fruit is the unknown number of new varieties for each area. The objective of this study was to evaluate 23 common pear cultivars and seven Asian pears. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Station “El Tasicuri” of Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico. The trees were planted in 1990 on Pyrus calleryana rootstock. The main results were that common pears were not adapted to the area because of the lack of cold weather; however, `Bartlett' was the only cultivar that was adapted. Asian pears showed good adaption into the region (`Shinseiki', `Kikusui', `Hosoui', `Twenty Century', and `Ya-Li'). The ripening date of these cultivars were from the 7 and 20 of Aug. and the weight of the fruit was 146 and 198 g/fruit. There were no pests or diseases in any of the Asian cultivars.

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Maojun Zhang, Lihua Ding, Qiang Wang, Meiqi Feng, and Shahrokh Khanizadeh

Province and was released in 2003 by one of the authors (MZ). Fig. 1. Pedigree of ‘Hanhong’ pear. The name ‘Hanhong’ makes reference to two characteristics: “very hardy and red skin colour on the surface exposed to the sun.” ‘Nanguoli’ is a

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Nahla Bassil, Kim Hummer, and Joseph Postman

Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers developed in apple and pear were used to determine genetic relationships among heritage apple and pear cultivars from Portugal's Azore Islands, and to develop identity fingerprints for European and Asian pear accessions at the USDA–ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR). We used 11 SSR markers (six from apple and five from pear) to examine 18 heritage apple and 9 heritage pear cultivars from the Azores. Eight additional Portuguese and economically important cultivars of apple and eight of pear were used as standards. Cluster analysis separated the apple and pear accessions into two distinct groups. Among apple genotypes, 12 unique accessions and five groups of synonyms were identified, while, in pear, seven unique genotypes and three pairs of synonyms were found. None of the accessions obtained from the Azores corresponded to widely grown standard Portuguese apple or pear cultivars. To examine 144 NCGR pear accessions, we used nine polymorphic SSR loci that were developed from GenBank sequences. Cluster analysis identified five sets of synonyms (four in P. communis L. and one in P. ussuriensis Maxim.) and four pairs of homonyms (three in P. communis and one in P. pyrifolia Burm. f. Nakai), and confirmed three clonal sets. Morphological evaluations and additional SSR markers will be used to confirm these results, and to genetically document the identities of pear genotypes. SSR markers will greatly assist the management of ex situ pome fruit germplasm collections by helping to eliminate duplicate accessions and expanding the genetic diversity represented.

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Yuanwen Teng, Kenji Tanabe, Fumio Tamura, and Akihiro Itai

Sciences, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, and Yinsheng Li and Chunhui Ma, Gansu Pomology Institute, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China for their generous assistance and cooperation in taking pear leaf samples. This work was supported

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Hsin-Shan Lin and Chien Yi Wang

Off-season production of several tropical and subtropical fruits has been successfully practiced commercially in Taiwan. By combining pruning, removal of leaves, and application of growth regulators, it is possible to have two to three crops of grapes per year. By grafting the chilled scions of temperate Asian pear onto the water shoots of low-chilling native pear varieties, it is possible to produce high-quality Asian pears (temperate-origin) in a subtropical environment. By using techniques such as root-pruning, flooding, and application of growth inhibitors, it is possible to induce flower bud formation and hasten the production of wax apples. The production periods of other fruit crops such as jujubes and sugar apples, can also be modified by pruning and other techniques.