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Calvin Chong

The first weed disc (Weed Guard) was introduced to Ontario in the early 1980s. They were made of semirigid plastic similar to 45-rpm records. Small holes allow water to penetrate but weeds germinating on the substrate often grow through them. In the 1990s, we obtained 85% reduction of container weeds using discs made from geotextile fabric (Mori Guard) or foam (similar to polyfoam used for container winter protection). The foam disc tended to curl upward at the edges, become easily windblown, and tended to partially expose the surface of the container mix. During the past 15 years, we have annually reused the same fabric discs (now unavailable due to high unit cost), and have tested various other weed discs, including several new-generation types and also the Mori Weed Bag. The new-generation discs are fabricated from materials such as fabric (Tex-R Geodisc), pressed peat moss (Biodisc), corrugated cardboard (Corrudisc), and plastic (Enviro LID). Both Tex-R Geodisc and Enviro LID were as effective or better in controlling weeds than weekly hand-weeding, herbicides, or the Mori Guard fabric disc. The Mori Weed Bag, a patented black polyethylene sleeve with prepunched holes fitted around the container like a florist's plant prepared for market, is used effectively and almost exclusively by one Ontario nursery. We also tested two types of insulated blanket covers, which when placed around the ball of above-ground container-grown trees, prevented weed growth during the summer and also protected the root ball against cold during the winter. We introduced the garbage bag sleeve, the ultimate no-weed method for pot-in-pot tree culture, which also reduces water use and frequency of irrigation. Due to factors such as under-performance, insufficient demand, and/or high costs, only certain discs are currently manufactured: Weed Guard, Tex-R Geodisc, Biodisc, and Enviro LID. The Mori Weed Bag is available but not the insulated blankets.

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Marietta M. Loehrlein

or aquatic habitats. The symbols also indicate whether plants require winter protection, are used in window boxes, are medicinal or toxic, are used as cut flowers or fruit decoration, or are otherwise useful. There is even a symbol for fragrance. Even

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Fumiomi Takeda and John Phillips

into areas with more severe winter conditions, cultivars with increased winterhardiness and systems to protect blackberry plants from winter injury are needed. Improved trellis design and cane-training techniques along with enhanced winter protection

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Catherine A. Neal

, and the necessity for increased precision in irrigation and fertilization practices all increase production costs over field-grown material. Other disadvantages of container growing include the need for winter protection, root mortality from lethal

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Michele R. Warmund, Jeanne D. Mihail, and Kaley Hensel

plants were maintained in an isolated nursery area until they were covered with a polyethylene foam blanket (Hummert International, St. Louis, MO) and plastic sheeting for winter protection. On 20 Apr. 2014, sedge plants were uncovered. One-year-old ‘Bob

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black plastic provided greater winter protection than a bare-soil production system with straw mulch applied in the spring, and directly led to greater marketable weights and bulb diameters. Two varieties, ‘Idaho Silverskin’ and ‘Persian Star’, were the

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Claude Richer, Caroline Lafond, and Campbell Davidson

, ‘Félix Leclerc’ cultivar can survive in Canadian zone 3A with a small cover of snow or in zone 3B without winter protection. The use of this cultivar may to be marginal in zones 3A to 8B due to tip damage. The cultivar reached its full potential for

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Claude Richer, Lynn M. Collicutt, Campbell G. Davidson, Larry Dyck, and Caroline Lafond

climatic zones 3A to 9B during 1999 to 2005 ( McKenney et al., 2001 ; Ouellet and Sherk, 1967 ). ‘Emily Carr’ can survive in Canadian zone 3A with a small cover of snow or in zone 3B without winter protection but is well adapted to zones 5B through 8B

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Jae-Yun Heo and Sung-Min Park

the American origin grape cultivars, and winter protection is required in regions having a cold climate. ‘Sujeong’ vines have relatively high disease resistance to powdery mildew ( Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.) and gray mold ( Botrytis cinerea Per

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Michele R. Warmund, Billy G. Cumbie, and Mark V. Coggeshall

previously described. Potted seedlings were grown outdoors under natural conditions with supplemental irrigation for anatomical and budding experiments. On 25 Nov. 2007, potted seedlings were covered with a polyethylene foam blanket for winter protection