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David Granatstein and Kent Mullinix

achieving multiple benefits, including weed control, N supply, water conservation, soil quality improvement, reduced costs, and potential biological control of pests, while promoting high fruit productivity and quality. Other orchard floor management studies

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Dale J. Bremer, Steven J. Keeley, Abigail Jager, Jack D. Fry, and Cathie Lavis

( Vickers, 2001 ). The use of automatic irrigation systems by homeowners, which increasingly are installed during construction of new single-family homes in urbanizing watersheds in some regions, may be both problematic and advantageous to water conservation

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Hongyan Sun, Kelly Kopp, and Roger Kjelgren

limited and uncertain supplies ( St. Hilaire et al., 2008 ). Xeriscaping, low water use landscaping, and water efficient landscaping are key water conservation approaches promoted in periodically water-deficit regions of the United States ( Smith and St

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Reagan W. Hejl, Benjamin G. Wherley, and Charles H. Fontanier

, 2017 ). Along with other conservation measures, the SAWS approach to water conservation has resulted in significant water savings for the San Antonio area ( SAWS, 2017 ). Municipalities often enact more stringent conservation strategies during severe

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Aaron L. Warsaw, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg, and Jeffrey A. Andresen

://www.epa.gov/safewater/consumer/pdf/mcl.pdf >. Warren, S.L. Bilderback, T.E. Tyler, H.H. 1995 Efficacy of three nitrogen and phosphorous sources in container-grown azalea production J. Environ. Hort. 13 147 151 Warsaw, A.L. Fernandez, R.T. Cregg, B.M. Andresen, J.A. 2009 Water conservation, growth

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Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Rebecca L. Darnell, Kelly Morgan, and Bielinski M. Santos

2009–2010. Vance Publ., Lenexa, KS Southwest Florida Water Management District 2000 Use of containerized strawberry transplants for water conservation and increased early production under a winter annual production system in Florida. Southwest Florida

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J.B. Beard, R.L. Green, and S.I. Sifers

Cultivar selection is one method used for the conservation of irrigation water. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the evapotranspiration (ET) rates of 24 well-watered, turf-type bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) genotypes under field conditions and established on a fritted clay root zone contained in plastic minilysimeter pots. A secondary objective was to correlate ET rate to leaf extension rate, a potential rapidly assessed predictor of the amount of leaf surface area present for ET. ET rates were determined by the water-balance method. Both the overall ET and leaf extension rate differed significantly among genotypes. ET rates were not correlated with leaf extension rates in individual years. Our data indicated a potential for water savings based on bermudagrass cultivar selection that was similar to the reported potential water savings based on warm-season turfgrass species selection.

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E. Jay Holcomb, Silvia Gamez, David Beattie, and George C. Elliott

Ebb-and-flow irrigation reduced water and fertilizer use by ≈ 40% when compared to overhead hand-watering by hose in the production of Hedera helix. In contrast, water and fertilizer use were not significantly different between ebb-and-flow and drip irrigation systems in the production of Asiatic hybrid lilies. Adequate growth of Hedera helix `Baltica' was obtained with 50 mg N/liter of 20-10-20 (20N-4.4-16.6K) or 20-19-18 (20N-8.4P-14.9K). Also, good market-quality hybrid lilies were produced with 75 mg N/liter of 20-19-18 (20N-8.4P-14.9K), 16-4-12 (16N-1.8P-10K), 20-0-20 (20N-0P-16.6K), and 20-10-20 (20N-4.4P-16.6K).

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Carlos Carpio and D. Scott NeSmith

This study evaluates the effect of irrigation on the profitability of the muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifilia) operation. Data from a 3-year experiment in which muscadine grapes were grown under four irrigation regimes were used to establish the relationship between yields and irrigation. Assuming a muscadine fruit price of $0.50/lb, harvesting costs of $0.21/lb, and irrigation costs of $16.75/acre-inch, the profit-maximizing level of irrigation was estimated to be 13.1 acre-inches for a season, or 7 gal/day per plant. Water requirements for profit maximization are 9% lower than water requirements for yield maximizing. Moreover, it is concluded that the effect of an adequate use of irrigation in the profitability of the muscadine grape operation can be substantial.