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Christopher J. Biai, José G. Garzon, Jason A. Osborne, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Ronald J. Gehl, and Christopher C. Gunter

acting independently or in combination often limit seedling growth and stand establishment ( Leskovar and Stoffella, 1995 ). Restricted water uptake can lead to sudden and severe plant water deficit, resulting in transplant shock ( Nitzsche et al., 1991

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Tomás Martínez-Trinidad, W. Todd Watson, and Russell K. Book

this research indicate that PBZ in combination with root pruning has a negative impact on tree growth 16 months after treatment. The growth-retarding effect of PBZ after root pruning might reduce transplant shock of newly planted trees or decline of

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Lea Corkidi, Jeff Bohn, and Mike Evans

to transplanting shock ( Azcón-Aguilar and Barea, 1997 ). However, nursery operations are often subjected to regulations that may affect mycorrhizal colonization, such as the use of certain pesticides ( California Department of Food and Agriculture

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Frederic B. Ouedraogo, B. Wade Brorsen, Jon T. Biermacher, and Charles T. Rohla

system to form. However, remediation of a deformed root by pruning may exacerbate transplant shock ( Struve, 1993 ). Another treatment is to remove the potting media. The pH level, soluble salts, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio contained in the potting mix

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Victoria Anderson, Krista Jacobsen, Renee Conneway, Sven Verlinden, Ryan Stewart, and Sarah T. Lovell

plant growth and can lead to a condition known as transplant shock ( Koeser et al., 2009 ; McKay, 1996 ). Proponents of plantable biocontainers suggest that their use limits root system disruption and reduces transplant shock ( Evans and Hensley, 2004

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Terri Starman

, respectively. Because mortality occurred at the beginning of the study, transplanting shock and salinity stress may both have contributed to plant death. No visual foliar damage was observed in any other species regardless of treatment in Expt. 1. Because the

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Shinsuke Agehara and Daniel I. Leskovar

, 1998 ). Another drawback was the strong inhibition of root biomass accumulation. Large root systems are important to facilitate pulling of transplants from trays ( Vavrina, 2002 ), whereas insufficient roots can result in severe transplant shock

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Smiljana Goreta, Daniel I. Leskovar, and John L. Jifon

establishment, particularly under high field evapotranspiration conditions, even with optimum irrigation regimes. Restricted water uptake can lead to sudden and severe plant water deficit, resulting in transplant shock ( Nitzsche et al., 1991 ). High air

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Susmitha Nambuthiri, Amy Fulcher, Andrew K. Koeser, Robert Geneve, and Genhua Niu

reduce the cleanup time required at installation. Plantable containers could eliminate root disruption and transplanting shock ( Khan et al., 2000 ). To function as claimed, it is imperative that plantable containers do in fact break down quickly once

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Lucia E. Villavicencio, James A. Bethke, and Lea Corkidi

other advantages for nursery production practices. It has been shown that the application of PGRs can increase seedling survival and tolerance to transplanting shock ( Cha-um et al., 2009 ; Dunlap et al., 1991 ), improve resistance to environmental