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Jessica M. Cortell and Bernadine C. Strik

In Spring 1993 and 1994, mature trailing `Marion' blackberries (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) were pruned to 0, 4, 8, and 12 floricanes/plant. An additional treatment of 0 floricanes with early (30 cm) primocane topping and pruning was included. Primocane length was measured from emergence in April until growth cessation at the end of October on individual canes and for the whole plant. In January 1994 and 1995, cane cold hardiness was evaluated by controlled freezing. In 1993, plants without floricanes produced more primocanes and branches with an increased total length at the end of the season than plants with floricanes. However, there were no significant differences in primocane length among treatments in 1994. In all treatments, the absolute growth rate (AGR), on a length basis, of primocanes occurred in flushes of rapid growth followed by slower growth throughout the season. Plants without floricanes had a significantly greater AGR than plants with floricanes on five dates in 1993. In 1994, there was no effect of floricane number per plant on AGR of primocanes over the season and the growth peaks were not as distinct. When comparing primocane elongation rate at three phenological stages in 1993, plants with no floricanes had a significantly higher total primocane growth per day during fruit production and from harvest to length cessation. The following year, plants with no floricanes had the highest rate of growth before bloom and a trend toward greater growth during fruit production. After fruit production, there were no differences in AGR between the treatments. Plants with floricanes produced a second flush of primocanes, while plants with no floricanes produced only one flush of primocanes. Primocane length of the first flush (averaged for 4-, 8-, and 12-floricane plants) was significantly different from the second flush at all dates during the season except for the final end of season measurement date. Primocanes pruned at 30 cm did not produce significantly more branches than unpruned primocanes on plants without floricanes. Plants without floricanes produced primocanes that were significantly more cold hardy (lower LT50) in 1994 and 1995 than plants with floricanes.

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Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian M. Yorgey, Mary E. Peterson, Patrick A. Jones, Jungmin Lee, Nahla V. Bassil, and Robert R. Martin

-erect along with ‘Black Diamond’, ‘Columbia Star’, ‘Hall’s Beauty’, and ‘Marion’ trailing blackberries harvested in 2017 from trials at Oregon State University's North Willamette Research and Extension Center (Aurora, OR). z In 2016 and 2018, ‘Twilight’ was

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Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian M. Yorgey, Mary E. Peterson, Patrick A. Jones, Gil Buller, Sedat Serçe, Jungmin Lee, Nahla V. Bassil, and Robert R. Martin

. Anthocyanin concentrations (mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/100 g) of the semierect ‘Eclipse’ and ‘Galaxy’ along with ‘Black Diamond’, ‘Columbia Giant’, ‘Columbia Star’, and ‘Marion’ trailing blackberries harvested in 2015 from trials at Oregon State University

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M.A. Norton and R.M. Skirvin

Chimeral `Thornless Evergreen' (CTE), (Rubus laciniatus Willd.) somaclones selected in 1983 and field planted in 1985 were reexamined in 1992 for various vegetative and reproductive characteristics. Two major types of thornless (prickle-free) plants, intermediate-sized (`UI 6-6' = `Everthornless') and dwarf (`UI 6-4'), originally selected from a chimeral thornless parent plant, were compared with thorny plants. The intermediate and dwarf somaclones have maintained their distinctive habits over 7 years' growth in the field, indicating that their growth habits are stable and not a transient effect of tissue culture. Although the thornless somaclones remained thornless, the degree and type of prickle-like structures varies considerably, indicating that the thornless gene (S te) does not entirely suppress the production of prickles, but apparently alters their development. Increasing suppression was directly related to increasing dwarfism, suggesting a link between thornlessness and internode length.

Open access

Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian M. Yorgey, Mary E. Peterson, Patrick A. Jones, Gil Buller, Jungmin Lee, Nahla V. Bassil, and Robert R. Martin

al., 2020 ). As with ‘Eclipse’, the ploidy of ‘Galaxy’ has not been determined, but is presumed to be tetraploid because it crossed readily with, and produced fertile offspring with, other tetraploid parents, whereas crosses with trailing blackberries

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Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, Chad E. Finn, and M. Pilar Bañados

, over 90% and 50% of the trailing blackberry crop in Oregon and California, respectively, was processed in 1990. Over 80% of the production from the 55 ha of erect and semierect blackberries in northwestern United States was marketed fresh in 1990

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Fumiomi Takeda and David Handley

A combination of simple cultural practices, a modified rotatable crossarm (RCA) trellis system, and covering plants with insulation material in winter overcame the lack of cold hardiness in trailing blackberries that have been established at Kearneysville, W.Va. After tying canes to trellis wires and rotating the cross-arms to below horizontal, tied canes were close to the ground, allowing them to be covered with protective materials, such as floating rowcover and polyethylene plastic during winter. Covers were removed in early spring and the canes remained in the horizontal orientation until bloom, which promoted flowering laterals to grow upright. After bloom, the cross-arm was rotated beyond vertical to position the fruit on one side of the row and improve harvest efficiency. In Jan. and Feb. 2005, the daily minimum temperatures under the FRC+PE covers were about 3 °C higher than in the open. The covers also provided protection against the wind. Tissue damage in protected trailing blackberries was significantly less than for unprotected plants. `Siskiyou' plants in covered plots produced 3 to 5 times more fruit than plants in the open. Harvesting of `Siskiyou' fruit occurred during the red raspberry harvest season or 2 to 3 weeks earlier than for eastern blackberries. Our findings suggest that trailing blackberries can grow satisfactorily and produce fruit if the adverse effect of low temperatures and winds is mitigated with our trellis system and winter protection method. If practical cultural techniques for improving their winter survival become available, there is a potential for early-season high-quality blackberry production in the mid-Atlantic coast region.

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F. Takeda, B. C. Strik, and J. R. Clark

Western trailing blackberries (e.g., `Boysen' and `Marion') are grown in Oregon. USDA-released semi-erect thornless blackberries (e.g., `Chester Thornless') and erect, thorny blackberries (e.g., `Cherokee') from Arkansas are grown across the United States from the mid-Atlantic coast region to Oregon. Flower bud development in several blackberry cultivars growing at three sites (Arkansas, Oregon, and West Virginia) was studied. In buds of `Boysen' and `Marion' blackberries from Oregon, sepal primordia were first observed in September and November, respectively. Further floral bud development continued into January. Sepal development in `Cherokee' buds occurred in November in Oregon and in December in Arkansas. At all subsequent sampling dates, the development was more advanced in Oregon than in Arkansas. Buds of `Chester Thornless' blackberry from all three sites remained undifferentiated until spring. Preliminary findings indicated that the time of flower bud initiation varied considerably among the cultivars examined. The results suggest that floral bud development in blackberry, once initiated, is continuous, but periods of low temperature can arrest bud development.

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Chad Finn and Robert Martin

Cuttings from Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht, the trailing blackberry, were collected in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia from 21 sites. The cuttings were rooted and placed in pots in the greenhouse. After the plants began to grow, leaves were harvested for ELISA testing using standard procedures. Each sample represented three clones from a site. Plants from 18 sites were represented by five samples and two sites were represented by three samples. None of the samples tested positive for the presence of raspberry bushy dwarf virus or tomato ringspot virus. Forty-four percent of the samples tested positive for tobacco streak virus. Only 33% of the sites on the Pacific coast tested positive for tobacco streak, whereas, 100% of the Cascade Mountain sites and 88% of the sites in the coastal range type environment tested positive. The only site in the Willamette Valley had no positive tests. With one exception, all of the sites that tested negative for the virus were also low elevation sites 0-90 m.

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Angela K. Anderson and Chad E. Finn

Morphological variation was examined in 20 populations of Rubus ursinus subsp. macropetalus from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon grown in a common garden. There was significant variability between and within populations for most traits studied. Principal component analyses separated populations along geographical clines for traits of horticultural significance. PC1 represented a general vigor component in all trials, and formed a negative correlation with elevation in four of five analyses (r = 0.60, 0.58, 0.50, 0.49; P < 0.05). Autumn leaf senescence tended to increase from west to east and with elevation. With higher elevation, there was a tendency for fruit weight to decrease, for later vegetative budbreak and fruit ripening, and for a shorter budbreak to first flower interval. From north to south, budbreak became somewhat earlier, cane spot susceptibility decreased, and budbreak to first flower interval increased. Characterization of this species will assist breeders to identify possible sources of cold hardiness, disease resistance, improved vigor, and acceptable fruit traits for the improvement of cultivated trailing blackberry.