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Hassan Chadjaa, Louis-Phillipe Vézina, Sylvain Dubé, and André Gosselin

Two cultivars of lamb's lettuce (Valerianella sp L. cvs. Valgros et Vit) and one cultivar of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Martine RZ Fl) were subjected to supplemental lighting treatments provided by high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS, PL 90, P.L. Lighting Systems). The PAR level was 50 μmol m–2 · s–1. Seedlings were subjected to three photoperiods (natural, 12, and 16 h). The experiment was conducted from Jan. until Apr. 1994. The fresh weight of plants grown under supplemental light was higher than plants grown under natural light. Nitrate concentration was lower in the leaves of plants grown under supplemental light while nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was increased. The cultivar Valgros was more productive than Vit, but accumulated more nitrates. At harvest, the fresh weight of Valgros plants grown under 12- and 16-h photoperiods were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those grown under natural photoperiod. The fresh weight of Vit grown under 16 h of supplemental light was 30% higher than under natural photoperiod. The lowest nitrate concentrations in plants were obtained under a 16-h photoperiod and the highest NRA were obtained with the same treatment. Compared to that obtained under natural photoperiod, the fresh weight of spinach shoots was 40% higher when seedlings were lighted for 12 h and almost 100% under 16 h. The lowest nitrate accumulation in spinach was found for plants grown under 16 h supplemental lighting.

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Claudine Ménard and Blanche Dansereau

The general objective of this project was to study the impact of preharvest growth conditions [supplementary lighting as high-pressure sodium (HPS) or metal halide (MH) lights, and fertilization] on the postharvest quality of greenhouse roses. On 25 Jan. 1991, 288 plants (Rosa × hybrida `Royalty', `After-Glow', and `Obsession') of 3× caliber were planted in pots. A split-split plot experimental design made up of four blocks was used. Light treatments (three) were main plots while fertilization (two) and cultivars (three cultivars; four plants per cultivar) were subplots and sub-sub-plots, respectively. The two fertilization regimes used had respective N: K (in ppm) ratios of 150 N: 300 K (F1) and 300 N: 300 K (F2). Three light treatments [ambient light conditions (control) and ambient light conditions + PPF of 100 μmol·m-2·s-1 supplied by 400-W HPS or MH lamps] were compared. Yields were significantly affected by supplemental light treatments, fertilization, or both regardless of cultivars. Results indicate that stems harvested from HPS and MH light treatments combined with fertilization F1 had a longer vase life than those grown with F2. HPS lamps significantly increased vase life compared to MH. The level of abscisic acid (ABA) was higher under MH than under HPS lamps at time zero (T0), and this was similar for all cultivars. Furthermore, when supplemental light was combined with the F1 fertilization, a lower ABA level was obtained. Low ABA levels were correlated to longer vase life expectancy.

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Giuliana Mulas and Lyle E. Craker

Variation in light quality is known to modify plant morphology, growth, and chemical constituency in plants. In the present study, the effect of light quality on growth and essential oil composition in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was investigated by comparing plants receiving supplemental red (660 nm) and far-red (730 nm) with each other and with control plants not receiving supplemental light. Except for the supplemental light treatments, all plants were grown under natural light conditions in a greenhouse and received full daylight, averaging 9.23 h/day during the study. The red and far-red light treatments, given as day extensions, started daily 15 min before sunset and continued for 4 h each evening for 4 weeks. No significant differences were observed in biomass yield from the different light treatments, but far-red light caused elongation of internodes and a reduction in the number of leaves in comparison with control and red-light treated plants. Essential oil production was highest in plants grown under far-red light treatments.

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Heather A. Hatt Graham and Dennis R. Decoteau

The influence of end-of-day (EOD), supplemental, cool-white fluorescent light on pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Keystone Resistant Giant No. 3) seedling growth and fruit production after transplanting to the field was investigated. Seedlings were exposed to this light source, which is high in the red wavebands, from one (1988) or two bulbs (1989) for 1 hour before the end of the natural photoperiod. Each year control plants were exposed to ambient light and received no supplemental fluorescent light. Before transplanting to the field, seedlings exposed to two bulbs were shorter and had smaller leaves than plants in the control treatment. Supplemental fluorescent light treatment, regardless of number of bulbs, reduced plant height, leaf area, fruit weight, and fruit count at the first harvest. Total fruit production was not affected by supplemental light, suggesting no residual effect of the light treatment during transplant production on total subsequent fruit production.

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Anil P. Rartwala, William B. Miller, P. Allen Hammer, and Terri Kirk

The possible factors contributing to leaf yellowing during the postharvest phase of Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) were investigated. Higher levels of growth retardants, forcing under negative DIF conditions, cold storage (4.0°C) at the `puffy bud' stage and shipping stress were shown to increase leaf yellowing during postharvest holding. Concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and starch under inductive and non-inductive conditions were determined to investigate the correlation of it to leaf yellowing. Lilies grown under negative DIP had lower concentrations of leaf, stem and flower soluble carbohydrates and starch compared to plants grown under positive DIF. Investigation of diurnal fluctuations of leaf carbohydrates revealed low carbohydrate levels in negative DIP-forced plants at all times during the diurnal cycle. Supplemental light (50-60 μmo1 m-2s-1) during cold storage increased leaf carbohydrate levels. Higher levels of bud abortion and reduced flower longevity were also observed under conditions inductive of leaf yellowing.

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Grace M. Pietsch, William H. Carlson, Royal D. Heins, and James E. Faust

The effects of day and night temperatures (15 to 35C) and three irradiance levels [50% of ambient, ambient, and ambient plus 12 mol·m-2·day-1 of supplemental photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)] on development of Catharanthus roseus `Grape Cooler' were determined. Time to flower decreased by 30 days and leaf-pair unfolding rate (LUR) increased linearly as average daily temperature increased from 18 to 35C. Flower size was greatest when plants were grown at 25C. Supplemental light decreased days to flower and increased flower size. Flowering occurred when nine leaf pairs were present on the plant. Using the inverse of the LUR curve, i.e., days per leaf pair, the number of days to flower could be predicted at any time during plant development based on plant leaf number.

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Robert G. Anderson and Wenwei Jia

Commercial quality cut-roses were produced in a single-stem production system from single node cuttings. A significant advantage to single-stem rose production is that specific environments can be used for specific developmental stages of rose growth. In stage 1 (propagation), cuttings were treated with a 5-second dip in 500 ppm IBA/250 ppm NAA solution, placed in growing media in 8-cm pots, and placed under intermittent mist (5 second every 5 minutes) with growing medium temperature of 35°C. In stage 2 (axillary budbreak and stem development to visible pea size flower bud), rooted cuttings moved to benches (200 stems/m2) in a greenhouse at 14 to 16°C night, and plants received 12 hours supplemental light at 80 to 100 mol·m–2s–1. In stage 3 (stem elongation and flower bud development), small rose plants (30 to 35 cm tall with a pea-size flower bud) were moved to 100 stems/m2 in a greenhouse at 14 to 16°C night with ambient light. Through seven sequential crops of rose cuttings grown from Feb. through May 1995, rooting required a mean of 16 days, flower buds were visible in 42 days, and flower harvest required a mean of 58 days. Accumulated radiation and average temperatures through the spring had significant effects on the number of days in each developmental stage of rose growth.

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R.M. Warner, J.E. Erwin, and A.G. Smith

Previous research indicated that Raphanus sativus L. `Chinese Radish Jumbo Scarlet' (CJRS) has an obligate vernalization requirement for flowering and can be vernalized as an imbibed seed in less than 10 days at 6 °C. For these reasons, it serves as an excellent model system for vernalization studies. This study was initiated to gain an understanding of the interaction between cold duration, exogenously applied GA3, and photoperiod on R. sativus CJRS flowering. R. sativus CJRS seeds were sown in 90-mm petri plates on Whatman no. 1 filter paper saturated with plain water or a solution containing 10-5 M or 10-3 M GA3. After germination (i.e., when the radicle was visible), seedlings were either directly transplanted into 10-cm pots and placed in a greenhouse, or transferred to another petri plate onto filter paper saturated with water only and placed in a growth chamber at 6 °C (75 μmol•m-2•s-1 for 8 h) for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 days. Greenhouse conditions were: 20 °C, ambient light (December to January, St. Paul, Minn.) plus 70 μmol•m-2•s-1 supplemental light (high-pressure sodium lamps, 0830-1630 hr), under either an 8-h photoperiod (covered with opaque cloth from 1630-0830 hr), or ambient photoperiod plus night-interruption lighting (2 μmol•m-2•s-1, using incandescent lamps, 2200-0200 HR). Results will be presented.

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Tara E. Paranick and N. Suzanne Lang

Shaded environments present major obstacles for establishing high quality, persistent, and resistant turfs. Exogenous fructose applications are being examined as a potential method to counteract the effects of shade on turf. This work examines the effectiveness of fructose applications under different light levels on two fine leaf fescue cultivars: chewings fescue (Festucarubra var. commutata) `SR5100' and creeping red fescue (Festucarubra var. rubra) `Dawson'. The experiment was conducted at Michigan State University, East Lansing, inside a simulated dome environment. The experiment was a randomized complete-block design that began 21 Oct. 2004 with two main factors: light and fructose. There were three light treatments: ambient light (shaded); supplemental high light; and supplemental low light. Fructose (0% or 1.25% weight/volume), dissolved in water with an organosilicone adjuvant, was applied once per week. Quality and color ratings, clippings, core samples, density, and leaf reflectance were recorded. In addition, light response curves (LRC) were taken inside an Econoair®

growth chamber using a LI-COR-6400® on the fine fescues, kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) `Cynthia', and bermudagrass (Cyondon dactylon) `Princess'. Preliminary results show that fructose had no significant effect in each light treatment for turf quality and color. However, fructose had a significant impact on clipping weights and density. The LRC specified the required and potential carbon needs as well as indicated the threshold levels, respectively, by species. The impact of fructose alone and in combination with supplemental light on photosynthesis efficiency will be presented.

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Joseph Dallon Jr.

Easter lily cultivars Ace and Nellie White were treated with three concentrations of a-cyclopropyl-a-(p-methoxyphenyl-5-pyrimidinemethanol) [Ancymidol] and grown in a standard potting mix under normal greenhouse conditions and established cultural procedures with and without bottom heat and HID lights. A significantly greater number of flowers were produced in Cv. Ace when exposed to HID lights alone, and when given bottom heat in the absence of light. However, significantly fewer flowers were produced in this Cv. when exposed to combined treatments of light and heat. Bottom heat treatment resulted in significantly taller plants in Cv. Ace. Neither bud count, height, nor number of days to flower were affected in Cv. Nellie White as a result of exposure to supplemental light or bottom heat treatments. Neither concentration of Ancymidol resulted in increased flower production. However, it caused a reduction in flower production in Cv. Ace both in the presence and absence of HID lights, and in the heat plus light treatment. Ancymidol was most effective in height control when light was given and heat withheld. At concentrations of 125 and 250 ppm it was effective without regard for heat or light treatment combinations.