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Marianna Hagidimitriou and Teryl R. Roper

`Searles' (low yielding) and `Stevens' (high yielding) cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) tissues were collected in 1990 and 1991 to determine the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates in above-ground (uprights, woody stems) and below-ground tissue. Uprights had the highest total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentration, followed by woody stems, while below-ground tissue contained the lowest TNC concentration. Total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration in uprights increased early in the season, reached a maximum in late May, decreased as flowering approached, and remained low from late June to late August. The latter period corresponds to flowering, fruit set, floral initiation, and fruit development stages. In late August, when fruit were full size, TNC levels increased, reaching highest concentration in November as the plants were entering dormancy. Most TNC increase in the early season and the subsequent decrease were due to changes in starch. The increase of TNC late in the season was primarily due to increases in soluble carbohydrates. Total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was greater in vegetative than fruiting uprights for the entire growing season. The lower TNC concentration in fruiting than vegetative uprights during flowering and fruit set was due to greater starch depletion in fruiting uprights. Seasonal changes in TNC in the two cultivars were similar; however, `Stevens' had generally higher TNC concentration and total dry weight as well as more fruiting uprights, fruit, and fruit weight per ground area. The low TNC concentration observed during fruit set and development suggests that the demands for carbohydrates are highest during that period and supports the hypothesis that competition for carbohydrate resources is one factor responsible for low cranberry fruit set.

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Marina Petreikov, Lena Yeselson, Shmuel Shen, Ilan Levin, Arthur A. Schaffer, Ari Efrati, and Moshe Bar

The accumulation of soluble sugars in ripe tomato fruit is perhaps the primary determinant of fruit quality and taste, together with the additional taste components that include acids and volatiles, among other primary and secondary metabolites

Open access

Hong Jiang, Zhiyuan Li, Xiumei Jiang, and Yong Qin

CAT] can effectively reduce the pressure of peroxide stress ( Wang et al., 2017a ). With increasing salt concentration, many organic osmoregulation substances, including Pro, soluble sugar, and soluble protein, accumulate to maintain the normal

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Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, Almudena Bayo-Canha, Gregorio López-Ortega, and Francisco M. del Amor

through the study of many relevant physiological parameters, such as height, number of leaves, leaf area (LA), net A CO2 , transpiration, internal CO 2 , stomatal conductance ( g S ), photosynthetic pigments, starch, and soluble sugars. Materials and

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Qi Wang, Rui Zhao, Qihang Chen, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Liqi Chen, and Xiaonan Yu

of three tree peony cultivars with five levels of SMC (35 ± 5%, 55 ± 5%, 75 ± 5%, 95 ± 5%, and half flooded) to study the changes in soluble protein and soluble sugar content, as well as cell membrane permeability under water stress. On the basis of

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Yuanyuan Miao, Qiaosheng Guo, Zaibiao Zhu, Xiaohua Yang, Changlin Wang, Yuan Sun, and Li Liu

enlargement ( Fernie and Willmitzer, 2001 ). The key enzyme involved in starch degradation is AMY, which decomposes starch into soluble sugars to maintain proper growth in plants ( Mishra and Dubey, 2013 ). Among sucrose-metabolizing enzymes, SPS catalyzes the

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Daniele Bassi and K. Ryugo

To learn why embryos of early ripening stone fruits abort or fail to germinate, the growth and nutrition of developing seeds of `Independence' nectarine and `Fay Elberta' peach (Prunus persica, Batsch.) were compared. Seeds were collected at weekly intervals, beginning 2 months after full bloom until the fruits were ripe. Fruit diameter, seed and embryo lengths, and fresh weights of nucellus and endosperm were recorded. Parts of the seeds were analyzed for soluble carbohydrates, fats, and total N. At the same phonological stages of fruit development, concentrations of these seed fractions were nearly equal for both cultivars. Percentage composition of all fractions varied with time, but increased on a per-seed basis. Sucrose was the major soluble carbohydrate in embryos of both cultivars. Nitrogen content of the embryos, on a percent dry matter basis, gradually decreased from the 12th week after full bloom to harvest.

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Rebecca L. Darnell and Keith B. Birkhold

Rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) cultivars differ in timing of floral and vegetative budbreak and in final fruit size. For example, `Bonita' exhibits concomitant floral and vegetative budbreak and has relatively large fruit size, while floral budbreak precedes vegetative budbreak in `Climax' and fruit size is smaller. Mobilization of carbohydrate before and during fruit development in `Bonita' and `Climax' rabbiteye blueberries was examined to determine if differences in carbohydrate availability between these two cultivars were correlated with differences in fruit size. Root dry mass (DM) of both cultivars decreased from dormancy (31 days before anthesis) through fruit development. Sugar concentrations in roots and stems of both cultivars decreased significantly between dormancy and anthesis, then remained relatively steady throughout fruit development. Starch concentrations in roots and stems of `Bonita' decreased significantly between dormancy and anthesis. The extent of total starch depletion in `Climax' was similar; however, the decrease was more gradual, extending from dormancy to 28 days after anthesis (DAA); at which time, vegetative budbreak in `Climax' occurred. Thus, although total reserve carbohydrate pool sizes were similar between the two cultivars, remobilization patterns were different, resulting in increased starch mobilization in `Bonita' compared to `Climax' in the period leading up to anthesis. Concentration of 14C from reserve carbon sources was similar in flowers of both cultivars at anthesis. These values declined throughout fruit development as a result of dilution of the labeled carbon by unlabeled carbon from current photosynthesis. There was a sharper decline in 14C concentration of `Bonita' fruit compared to `Climax' fruit between anthesis and 51 DAA. This, coupled with differences in timing of vegetative budbreak between the two cultivars, suggests that `Bonita' fruit were accessing current (unlabeled) assimilate earlier (i.e., before 51 DAA) than `Climax' fruit. Smaller fruit size in `Climax' compared to `Bonita' may be a consequence of a decrease in reserve carbohydrate mobilization to `Climax' flower buds before anthesis relative to `Bonita', as well as a delay or reduction in the availability of current carbohydrates to developing `Climax' fruit between anthesis and 51 DAA.

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Annick Moing, Christel Renaud, Hélène Christmann, Lydie Fouilhaux, Yves Tauzin, Anne Zanetto, Monique Gaudillère, Frédéric Laigret, and Jacques Claverie

Rain-induced fruit cracking is a limiting factor for sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) growers in many production areas. Although many studies have concerned this complex phenomenon, the basic mechanisms involved in fruit cracking remain unclear. We re-examined the relations between osmotic potential and cracking susceptibility in cherry fruit by comparing the osmotic contribution of the major metabolites separately in flesh and skin, in four cultivars (with different levels of susceptibility to cracking) at four stages of development. Several differences were observed between flesh and skin revealing compositional gradients in the fruit tissues. Acidity and malate concentrations were higher in flesh than in skin for all stages. The absolute value of osmotic potential was higher but the contribution of the sum of sugars to osmotic potential was lower in flesh than in skin. As determined using fruit immersion test, `Fermina' and `Regina' were less susceptible to fruit cracking than `Lapins' and `Brooks'. At commercial maturity when fruit susceptibility to cracking was highest, no clear difference appeared between `Brooks' and `Lapins' compared to `Regina' and `Fermina' for flesh or skin osmolarity and for the contribution of the major sugars or organic acids to skin and flesh osmotic potential.

Open access

Nan Tang, Rulong Jia, Jicheng Yin, Yan Wang, and Daocheng Tang

. Every week, 30 bulblets were selected randomly from each treatment and pooled to determine the contents of soluble sugars and starch. The contents of starch and soluble sugars were determined using anthrone colorimetry and were estimated based on fresh