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Angelos I. Deltsidis, Charles A. Sims, and Jeffrey K. Brecht

relation to ripening and senescence J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 111 201 204 Babitha, K.C. 2006 Physiological basis of extending postharvest shelf life in tomato. Univ. Agr. Sci., Dharwad Bai, J. Baldwin, E.A. Imahori, Y. Kostenyuk, I. Burns, J. Brecht, J

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W.C. Lin and D.L. Ehret

Long English cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were treated with one of three nutrient concentrations in combination with two fruit thinning treatments forming a 3 × 2 factorial greenhouse experiment. High nutrient concentration enhanced fruit color at harvest and prolonged shelf life but reduced marketable fruit per plant. Thinning of one-third of the fruit from the main stem and laterals had a similar effect. Cucumbers harvested from the upper canopy generally had longer shelf life than those from the lower canopy. Shelf life was correlated with fruit color at harvest.

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A. Klieber, W.C. Lin, P.A. Jolliffe, and J.W. Hall

Various stem-training systems were applied to greenhouse-grown `Mustang' cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants at two production stages. Training systems determined the number of stems per plant, orientation of laterals, and leaf: fruit ratio. Training systems permitting high canopy light penetration resulted in darker fruit and a longer shelf life. Shelf life was positively related to rapid fruit growth in Expt. 1 but not in Expt. 2. Training systems to achieve a long shelf life of greenhouse-grown long English cucumber are described.

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J. W. Scott and Elizabeth A. Baldwin

Fruit of 10 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultigens, including five typical fresh market F1's, two rin/ + F1's, two very firm (ultrafirm) inbreds, and an antisense PG F1, were harvested at mature green, breaker, and table ripe stages of development, passed over a grader and taken to a lab (21°C) for analyses of soluble solids, titratable acidity and firmness at the table ripe stage. Shelf life was also measured. Cultigens varied in response to both solids and acids at the three harvest stages, thus there was no clear effect of harvest stage on these variables. The rin /+ F1's and ultrafirm inbreds were significantly firmer than the other cultigens at the table ripe and breaker stages. Shelf life tended to decrease with maturity at harvest. One rin /+ F1 had the greatest shelf life at all harvest stages. Ultrafirm and antisense PG cultigens had greater shelf life than the other six cultigens at the table ripe stage.

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Bill B. Dean and Eugene M. Kupferman

Shelf life of perishable commodities is a function of time by temperature effects on the composite kinetic reactions within each commodity. Empirical tests to approximate shelf life have limited value, particularly in long-distance shipment when less than ideal storage conditions occur, such as for the export market. Time temperature monitors (TTMs) have been developed for monitoring storage temperatures and predicting remaining shelf life. Kinetics curves for ripening of pears, yellow color development in broccoli and browning of mushrooms were compared to kinetics properties of available TTMs at 5, 10, and 20°C. Each commodity deteriorated or ripened at rates corresponding to a different TTM. At 20°C, broccoli kinetics were similar to TTM MC 60 or 67, pears to MC 74, and mushrooms MC 66. Customized TTMs and application of this technology will be discussed.

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Bill B. Dean and Eugene M. Kupferman

Shelf life of perishable commodities is a function of time by temperature effects on the composite kinetic reactions within each commodity. Empirical tests to approximate shelf life have limited value, particularly in long-distance shipment when less than ideal storage conditions occur, such as for the export market. Time temperature monitors (TTMs) have been developed for monitoring storage temperatures and predicting remaining shelf life. Kinetics curves for ripening of pears, yellow color development in broccoli and browning of mushrooms were compared to kinetics properties of available TTMs at 5, 10, and 20°C. Each commodity deteriorated or ripened at rates corresponding to a different TTM. At 20°C, broccoli kinetics were similar to TTM MC 60 or 67, pears to MC 74, and mushrooms MC 66. Customized TTMs and application of this technology will be discussed.

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Martha A. Mutschler, David W. Wolfe, Edward D. Cobb, and Kenneth S. Yourstone

Fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrids heterozygous for the alc ripening mutation stored on average 60% (3.6 days) longer at 20C than that of their normal-ripening parents. There were no detrimental effects of the alc heterozygous condition on fruit color, firmness, or size. The background into which alc was introduced also affected fruit quality and shelf life. These results indicate hybrids heterozygous for the alc ripening mutant can produce commercially acceptable fruit with significantly longer shelf life than their normal-ripening parents.

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David W. Wolff and James R. Dunlap

Cucumis melo varieties show a great diversity of ripening and abscission phenotype, ethylene production, and postharvest keeping quality. As a preliminary step in the development of melons with improved shelf-life and modified ripening, we surveyed 100 genotypes of melons with diverse ripening characteristics for ethylene production rate and shelf-life. Genotypes representing seven melon types (Western shipper cantaloupes, Eastern cantaloupes, Long shelf life cantaloupes [LSL], Charenteis, Galias, Honeydews, Casabas) were planted in the field in a randomized complete block with three replications. C. melo var. reticulatus and C. melo var. inodorus were harvested 40 and 50 days post-anthesis, respectively, and brought in the lab for ethylene production measurement. Fruit at horticultural maturity were also harvested and stored at room temperature. After 7 days, a postharvest decay rating (1 = complete rot and collapse–5 = no softening or decay) was taken to determine relative shelf-life of the genotypes. Average ethylene production rate ranged from 44.44 to 0.64 nl·h–1·g–1 for Eastern cantaloupes and Casaba melons, respectively. A negative linear relationship was observed between ethylene production rate and postharvest decay rating. LSL cantaloupes had the lowest ethylene production rate of the netted, orange flesh types. The relationship between ethylene production rate and polymorphism for ACC oxidase (pMEL1) and ACC synthase (pMEACS1) cDNA probes is being investigated.

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James W. Rushing and Robert F. Testin

Antioxidants and certain variables in the processing protocol were evaluated for their influence on the respiration, ethylene production, color, and storage potential of shredded cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata). Four commercially available antioxidants were compared to ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulfite. Compounds were applied either by dipping or by vacuum infusion after the cabbage was shredded. Weight changes occurring during each step of processing were measured. Shredded cabbage was packaged under vacuum in 1.75 mil polyethylene bags and stored at 4°C. In all studies, untreated controls had longer shelf life than any of the treated shredded cabbage based on subjective evaluation as well as objective color scores. Respiration and ethylene production were not influenced by treatment other than centrifugation immediately after shredding, which reduced the rate of both processes by about 50%. Any treatment resulting in weight gain, e.g. vacuum infusion or dipping in aqueous solutions, caused a decrease in shelf life.

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Fouad M. Basiouny and Floyde M. Woods

Applications of paclobutrazol (PP333), Daminozide (DZ), and Nutri-cal to rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashi Reade) was studied. The application of these chemicals at different concentrations was made in the fall and throughout the growing season. PP333, DZ and Nutri-cal induced variable effects on yield, inte rnal and external fruit qualities. Shelf-life of hand-harvested fruits responded favorably to each of these chemicals.