( Table 4 ). There was a year and cultivar effect for root biomass and a treatment effect only in 2015 for ‘Seascape’. ‘Seascape’ root biomass was greatest under Bio360 mulch followed by WeedGuardPlus and PE, Exp. Prototype, and the bare ground control
Lisa W. DeVetter, Huan Zhang, Shuresh Ghimire, Sean Watkinson, and Carol A. Miles
W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez
10 d. At 10 d, cuttings propagated under SSL R 75 :B 25 , R 50 :B 50 , and R 0 :B 100 LEDs exhibited 17%, 8%, and 17% more root biomass, respectively, than under SL. TDM at 2 d was significantly smaller under R 0 :B 100 than all other SSL LEDs, but
Bryan J. Peterson and William R. Graves
). Other traits of potential concern to those interested in selecting genotypes for horticulture include stem diameter, root biomass, and root-to-shoot ratios. Seedlings from the population in North Dakota had stouter stems, greater root dry weight, and
Lambert B. McCarty, D. Wayne Porter, Daniel L. Colvin, Donn G. Shilling, and David W. Hall
Greenhouse studies were conducted at the Univ. of Florida to evaluate the effects of preemergence herbicides on St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] rooting. Metolachlor, atrazine, metolachlor + atrazine, isoxahen, pendimethalin, dithiopyr, and oxadiazon were applied to soil columns followed by placement of St. Augustinegrass sod on the treated soil. Root elongation and biomass were measured following application. Plants treated with dithiopyr and pendimethalin had no measurable root elongation and root biomass was severely (>70%) reduced at the study's conclusion (33 days). Root biomass was unaffected following isoxaben and oxadiazon treatments, but oxadiazon applied at 3.4 kg·ha-1 reduced root length by 50%. Atrazine at 2.2 kg·ha-1 and metolachlor + atrazine at 2.2 + 2.2 kg·ha-1, did not reduce root length in one study, while the remaining atrazine and metolachlor + atrazine treatments reduced cumulative root length and total root biomass 20% to 60%. Metolachlor at 2.2 kg·ha-1 reduced St. Augustinegrass root biomass by >70% in one of two studies. St. Augustinegrass root elongation rate was linear or quadratic in response to all treatments. However, the rate of root elongation was similar to the untreated control for plants treated with isoxaben or oxadiazon. Chemical names used: 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(l-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine(atrazine);S,S-dimethyl2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(t∼fluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinecarbothioate (dithiopyr); N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide (isoxaben); 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl- 6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).
Georgios Psarras and Ian A. Merwin
One-year-old potted `Mutsu' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees on scion invigorating Malling-Merton 111 (MM.111) and scion dwarfing Malling 9 (M.9) rootstocks were grown outdoors in containers under three levels of water availability (irrigated at -20, -80, and -200 kPa) to investigate the effects of soil water availability on combined soil/root (rhizosphere) respiration rates, and developmental morphology of root systems. Rhizosphere respiration was measured with a portable infrared gas analyzer, and root biomass was estimated by electrical capacitance. These nondestructive measurements were compared with final root dry weights of harvested trees, to determine their reliability for estimating relative differences in root biomass. Water stress reduced final biomass similarly for both rootstocks, but the relative reduction in shoot growth was greater for MM.111. Root to shoot ratios were higher and average specific root respiration was lower for M.9 rootstock compared with MM.111. M.9 appeared to be more tolerant of water stress then MM.111, due to reduced canopy transpiration relative to root system mass. Water stress increased root to shoot ratios, specific root length, and the carbohydrate costs of root maintenance as indicated by specific respiration rates. Root dry weight (DW) was better correlated to rhizosphere respiration than to root electric capacitance. The observed r 2 values between root capacitance and root DW were as high as 0.73, but capacitance measurements were also influenced by soil water content and rootstock type. Electrical capacitance estimated total root biomass more accurately for M.9 than for MM.111.
T.C. Vrain, Hugh A. Daubeny, J.W. Hall, R.M. DeYoung, and A.K. Anderson
The inheritance of resistance to the root lesion nematode [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filip. and Stek.] in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) was studied in a four-member half diallel, involving two resistant genotypes and two susceptible genotypes. Estimates of general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA, respectively) were determined for nematode densities in roots alone and soil alone, nematode densities per plant, and plant root and foliage biomass. GCA were significant for nematodes in soil and for root and foliage biomass; SCA were significant for nematodes in the soil and for root biomass. Neither GCA nor SCA was significant for number of nematodes in the roots or per plant.
Yiqun Lin, Michael R. Wagner, and Joseph R. Cobbinah
The effect of bottom heat, wounding, and duration of stem basal IBA dip on macropropagation of Milicia excelsa was investigated. Bottom heat enhanced root dry mass and accelerated root initiation. Percentage rooting and root dry mass were not affected by wounding and duration of stem basal treatment. However, wounding interacted with bottom heat to affect dry mass (P < 0.05). Root biomass was 60% higher from wounded cuttings than from nonwounded cuttings under the nonheated condition. Chemical names used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
Hoon Kang, Abbas Lafta, Chiwon W. Lee, Murray E. Duysen, and Larry Cihacek
The influence of potassium (K) nutrition on the growth and sugar contents of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cv. Navajo was investigated in a greenhouse study. Seeds were germinated in 15-cm plastic pots (volume1.5 L) containing a peatlite mix (2 parts peat:1 part vermiculite:1 part perlite, v/v). Starting at 6 true-leaf stage (5 weeks from germination), plants were watered with nutrient solutions containing 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 meq K/L for 10 weeks. While plants receiving no potassium had the lowest biomass yield, there was little or no difference in shoot or root biomass yields between different K concentrations. Root glucose and sucrose contents were the highest when plants grown with 8 meq K/L and 4 meq K/L, respectively, from the nutrient solution. The influence of nutrient solution K concentration on tissue content of K and other macronutrient elements was also determined.
Mary Ann Rose, Mark Rose, and Hao Wang
Crabapple [Malus ×zumi (Rehd.) `Calocarpa'] and maple (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray `Jeffersred') trees were grown in containers from 22 June to 3 Oct. with three fertilizer concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg·L-1 N) and two levels of moisture tension in the medium [low setpoint (moist) = 5 kPa and high setpoint (dry) = 18 kPa]. Whole-plant growth was enhanced more by minimizing water stress than by increasing fertilizer concentration. Shoot length and whole-plant dry weight were greater (>29% for crabapple and >90% for maple) in low tension treatments (low water stress) but were unaffected by fertilizer concentration. Moisture tension also had a dominant effect on dry-weight allocation to leaves, stems, and roots. In contrast, foliar nutrient concentrations increased with fertilizer concentration but were affected to a lesser degree by moisture tension. Seasonal patterns in biomass allocation were little affected by treatments; the largest proportions of leaf and root biomass accumulated during summer and fall, respectively.
Kathryn S. Hahne and Ursula K. Schuch*
The objective of this study was to determine whether mesquite (Prosopis velutina) seedlings have a preference for the ammonia or nitrate form of nitrogen (N), and to determine the optimum rate of N to maximize growth and minimize N leaching when seedlings are grown in different substrates. Mesquite seedlings were fertigated with different ratios of NH4 +: NO3 - to determine effects on shoot and root growth and N-uptake efficiency. Nutrient solution containing 67% NH4 + : 33% NO3 - resulted in greatest biomass after 120 days of fertigation. N leachate remained stable until 12 weeks after the onset of treatment, but increased significantly by week 16. Subsequently, mesquite seedlings were grown in sand or soilless media and were fertigated with a solution of 67 % NH4 +: 33% NO3 - at a rate of 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg·L-1 of N. After 60 days, plants in media produced 41% more leaves and total biomass compared to those in sand. Leaf number was greatest for plants grown at 200 mg·L-1 of N in both substrates. Root biomass of plants in media showed no response to increasing N concentrations while root biomass of seedlings in sand were similar for the three lower N concentrations and nearly doubled for the highest one. Shoot biomass of seedlings receiving 25, 50, or 100 mg·L-1 of N was similar, but more than doubled for plants fertigated with 200 mg·L-1 of N. N leachate losses were highest from seedlings growing in sand and receiving the two higher N fertigations, those in media had greatest N leachate loss when fertigated at 200 mg·L-1 of N. For balanced mesquite seedling growth and minimum N leaching losses, concentrations between 50 to 100 mg·L-1 of N are recommended. Implications of using a sand culture system vs. soilless growing substrate for nutrition studies will be discussed.