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Martin P.N. Gent and Michael R. Short

Reuse of solution after it has once been used to water plants can prevent groundwater pollution from the use of fertilizer in intensive agricultural production. The smaller the volume of nutrient solution discarded, the less likelihood of excess

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John C. Majsztrik and John D. Lea-Cox

( Chesapeake Executive Council, 1987 ). The 1992 amendment expanded restoration efforts to tributaries instead of just the main stem of the Bay and acknowledged that a reduction of upstream pollution would benefit the Bay overall ( Chesapeake Executive Council

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Stephanie E. Burnett and Marc W. van Iersel

pollution from fertilizer runoff that contains nitrates and phosphorus ( Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001 ). Because leachate volume correlates positively with irrigation volume, irrigating efficiently is a straightforward and inexpensive way to reduce leaching and

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Igenicious N. Hlerema, Bahlebi K. Eiasu, and Susan H. Koch

of biosorption capacity which could be exploited as cost-effective technology to solve problems of heavy metal pollution. Literature Cited Ahmad, I. 1986 Some studies on oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) on waste material of corn industry. MS Thesis

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Anthony S. Davis, Matthew M. Aghai, Jeremiah R. Pinto, and Kent G. Apostol

leaching, both economically in terms of saved fertilizer and in terms of reduced pollution, will further help quantify potential benefits of subirrigation systems. Literature Cited Ahmed, A.K. Cresswell, G.C. Haigh, A.M. 2000 Comparison of sub

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Leqi Yang, Xiao Yang, Hong Zhao, Danfeng Huang, and Dongqin Tang

accumulation of fertilizer salinity ( Argo and Biernbaum, 1995 ). However, overhead irrigation also has negative effects, e.g., water wastage and potential pollution of the soil surface and groundwater with pesticides and fertilizers ( Ferrarezi et al., 2015a

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Neng-Iong Chan, Bruce E. Rittmann, and James Elser

( Ferber, 2004 ; Smith and Schindler, 2009 ). To reduce pollution and extend the life of finite supplies of rock phosphate, nutrient-recovery technologies ( Li et al., 2015 ) and improved agricultural practices ( Mikkelsen, 2011 ) are being developed. In

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Rachel Mack, James S. Owen Jr., Alex X. Niemiera, and David J. Sample

. Agriculture is considered one of the leading sources of nonpoint source pollution to the CBW (EPA, 2010). Runoff exiting production sites is considered nonpoint source pollution by the EPA (2005). Although the reduction targets are jointly agreed on by

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Wei-Ling Yuan, Shang-yong Yuan, Xiao-hui Deng, Cai-xia Gan, Lei Cui, and Qing-fang Wang

application can pose potential adverse environmental and health concerns ( Deng et al., 2012 ; Jing et al., 2007 ) such as groundwater pollution by NO 3 - -N, NH 3 , and N 2 O volatilization into the atmosphere ( Fan et al., 2010 ; Shi et al., 2010 ; Wang

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Shivani Kathi, Catherine Simpson, Alinna Umphres, and Greta Schuster

al., 2008 ; Robertson and Vitousek, 2009 ; Zhou et al., 2012 ). Excess usage of N fertilizers results in substantial soil acidification, with N leaching and emissions as direct causes of water and air pollution ( Guo et al., 2010 ; Zhang et al