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C. Yang, D.Y. Jiao, Z.Q. Cai, H.D. Gong, and G.Y. Li

plants in the wet season (WS) and treated with different plant growth regulators in the dry season. Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05. ABA = abscisic acid; CK = control (water); GA 3 = gibberellic acid; Gs = gas stomatal

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Modeste Kan Kouassi, Jane Kahia, Christophe N’guessan Kouame, Mathias Gnion Tahi, and Edmond Kouablan Koffi

different cocoa genotypes react differently to different callus-inducing hormones ( Traore and Guiltinan, 2006 ). Plant growth regulators play a key role by intervening in the reactions that lead to a reorientation of the program of gene expression. This

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Diana R. Cochran and Amy Fulcher

phytotoxicity ( Meijón et al., 2009 ) and be perceived as digressing from sustainable production ( Lütken et al., 2012 ). Plant growth regulators have several modes of action, including branch inducing, chemical pinching (chemicals that suppress apical dominance

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Antonios E. Tsagkarakis, Michael E. Rogers, and Timothy M. Spann

systemic insecticides and the last treatment with contact insecticides was greater than 1 year before PGR treatment. Table 1. Active ingredient chemical name, trade name, manufacturer, and rate of plant growth regulators used to study the effects of

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Piyada Alisha Tantasawat, Atitaya Sorntip, and Paniti Pornbungkerd

December) 2013 and the Summer (March to April) 2014 seasons ( A ) temperature in Celsius degrees ( B ) relative humidity in percentage. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators. To evaluate growth, floral and yield-related traits, and yield

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Marisa Y. Thompson, Jennifer J. Randall, Dawn VanLeeuwen, and Richard J. Heerema

; Tombesi et al., 2011 ; Weinbaum et al., 2001 ; Wood, 1991 , 2011b ). Plant growth regulators applied to pecan shoots affect return bloom differently, depending on whether the shoots were nonfruiting or fruiting during the treatment year ( Thompson et al

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Amir Rezazadeh and Richard L. Harkess

. Table 1. Effects of plant growth regulators (PGR) on plant height, leaf dry weight, and leaf area of purple firespike plants pinched 2 weeks after potting to leave two to three nodes and treated with PGRs when new shoots were 3–5 cm. Leaf dry weight and

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Patrick E. McCullough, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, and Ted Whitwell

Dwarf bermudagrass morphological characteristics following the use of plant growth regulators have not been reported. The objective of this greenhouse study was to determine short-term effects of seven plant growth regulators on clipping yield, chlorophyll concentration, and root mass of `TifEagle' bermudagrass. Growth regulators tested included ethephon, fenarimol, flurprimidol, maleic hydrazide, mefluidide, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Two applications of each compound were made over a 6-week period. Root mass was reduced 39% by fenarimol and 43% by flurprimidol, while other PGRs had root mass similar to untreated turf. `TifEagle' bermudagrass treated with paclobutrazol, mefluidide, fenarimol, and flurprimidol averaged 45% less root mass than trinexapac-ethyl-treated turf. Trinexapac-ethyl was the only compound to reduce clippings and enhance turf quality without negative rooting effects. Chemical names used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); {α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl] 5-pyrimidine-methanol} (flurprimidol); (+/-)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (N-[2,4-dimethyl-5 [[(trifluoro-methyl)-sulfonyl] amino]phenyl]acetamide) (mefluidide); [1,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazine-dione] (maleic hydrazide); [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid] (ethephon); and (2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol) (fenarimol).

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Marco Volterrani, Nicola Grossi, Monica Gaetani, Lisa Caturegli, Aimila-Eleni Nikolopoulou, Filippo Lulli, and Simone Magni

seeding is routinely adopted for several field crops. Properly sized sprigs could fit precision seeding machinery thus with the potential of being planted at a defined depth and spacing. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are known for their ability to modify

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Martin J. Bukovac

The importance of spray application and the role of spray additives are reviewed in reference to increasing the effectiveness of plant growth regulators (PGR). The spray application process is composed of a number of interrelated components, from formulation of the active ingredient into a sprayable, bioactive solution (emulsion/suspension), to atomization, delivery, retention, and penetration into the plant tissue. Each of these events is critical to performance of the PGR. Also, each can be affected by spray additives, particularly adjuvants, which may be incorporated in the formulation of the active ingredient or added to the spray mixture. The role of the individual components and effects of spray adjuvants, particularly surfactants and fertilizer adjuvants, on the component processes are discussed.