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C.S. Hew

Orchid cut flower industry has contributed substantially to the economy of Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and other Asean countries. Singapore exports US$13 million dollar worth of orchid cut flower in 1990 and Thailand's export was at least 3 to 4 times higher. Germany and Japan are the major markets for tropical orchid cut flowers. Economically important orchid genera are Aranda, Dendrobium, Mokara, Oncidium and Vanda. This paper will review the agronomic practices in orchid cultivation, the current status and development of orchid industry and the research and development made towards the improvement of the orchid industry in Asean countries.

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Timothy K. Broschat

Hong Kong orchid tree is an outstanding flowering tree for tropical and subtropical regions of the world ( Barwick, 2004 ). It is a hybrid between Bauhinia purpurea L. and Bauhinia variegata L. and, unlike its parents, does not set fruit and

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H. Kamemoto, W. Meeyot, and M. Takeshita


The breeding behavior of polyploid Dendrobium orchids (N=19) was investigated by making crosses involving diploids, triploids and tetraploids. Seedlings were obtained from various combinations, although the percentages of viable seed was low for crosses involving triploids. 2N × 2N crosses produced 2N offspring, 4N × 4N crosses produced 4N offspring and 2N × 4N and 4N × 2N crosses produced 3N offspring. 2N × 3N and 3N × 2N crosses gave rise to predominantly 4N progenies and small percentages of aneuploids between the 2N and 3N levels. The increase in ploidy can be attributed to the functioning of unreduced 3N gametes from the 3N parent and the normally reduced N gametes from the 2N parent. 3N × 4N and 4N × 3N crosses produced variable progenies of 5N and aneuploid offspring between the 3N and 4N levels.

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Yin-Tung Wang

Blooming Phalaenopsis orchids have become a popular pot plant in recent years. Plants start producing spikes after experiencing cool air in early fall, bloom in early spring, and become limited in supply after April when market demand is strong. Deferring spiking and flowering by maintaining the greenhouse air constantly above 28°C is cost prohibitive. Previous research has discovered that plants must be given light while being exposed to cool air to induce spiking. In Fall 1994, 2-year old Phalaenopsis TAM Butterfly plants were exposed to repeated cycles of 1 day in darkness and another day in light (1D/1L), 4D/3L, 7D/7L, or 0D/7L (continuous lighted control) between 15 Sept. and 16 Dec. Each plant was removed from the treatment once it had started spiking. The control plants bloomed on 20 Jan. 1995, whereas the 4D/3L plants did not reach anthesis until April 17, nearly three months later. Flowering of the 1D/1L and 7D/7L plants was also deferred until early April. The treatments had no adverse effect on flower count or size. In 1995, 3-year old plants were exposed to 0D/7L (control), 2D/5L, 3D/4L, 4D/3L, or 5D/2L from 15 Sept. to 22 Jan. 1996. The control plants spiked on 17 Oct. and bloomed on 8 Feb. 1996 when spikes had just emerged from plants in the 5D/2L treatment. The 5D/2L plants are expected to bloom in late May or early June. The other treatments were not as effective as that in 1994 and resulted in blooming only 2–3 weeks after the untreated control. The results of this research will help producers to stagger or precisely program the time of flowering to meet the market demand.

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Roberto G. Lopez and Erik S. Runkle

Flowering potted orchids has become one of the largest segments of floriculture worldwide. Large-scale production of cuts or potted plants exists in China, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. Despite the value of orchids, the flowering physiology of most orchid genera is not well described. Therefore, scheduling flowering crops for specific market dates (such as Easter or Mother's Day) is not possible for most genera. This paper summarizes world orchid production and reviews how environmental factors regulate growth and flowering of several commercially important orchid genera: Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Miltoniopsis, Phalaenopsis, and Zygopetalum. These genera primarily flower in response to relatively low temperatures, and, for some species and hybrids, flowering is promoted when the plants are also exposed to short photoperiods. Effects of light and temperature on growth and development are summarized for these genera, and implications for controlled production are discussed.

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Song-jun Zeng, Zhi-lin Chen, Kun-lin Wu, Jian-xia Zhang, Cheng-ke Bai, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, and Jun Duan

), Kuangxian (Guansu Province), and Zhengping (Shaanxi Province) in China ( Shi et al., 2008 ; Tsi, 1989 , 1999 ; Wu et al., 2009 ). The genus is locally known as “elephant nose orchid” because of its long, slender rostellum ( Fu and Hong, 2002 ). N

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Trent Y. Hata, Arnold H. Hara, and James D. Hansen

Feeding preference of melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was evaluated on 21 Dendrobium cultivars and the bamboo orchid Arundina graminifolia (D. Don) Hochr. Pigmented flowers resembling the morphotype phalaenopsis from Phalaenanthe sections were preferred over nonpigmented phalaenopsis, Phalaenanthe × Ceratobium hybrids, and bamboo orchids. This study suggests the separation of susceptible cultivars from preferred cultivars as a pest management strategy for melon thrips control.

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Kent D. Kobayashi and Edwin F. Mersino

Increasing flower production and manipulating the flowering season of potted ornamental plants would help provide a competitive edge for floriculture producers in Hawaii. Photoselective shadecloths that modify the light spectrum may be an approach to achieve these aims. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of photoselective shadecloths on the flowering of potted orchids. At the University of Hawaii Magoon Facilities (Oahu), two kinds of orchids were grown in a saranhouse in chambers built with PVC pipe covered with the four shadecloths—black (control), gray (diffusive), red, and blue—each providing 30% shading. With M-10973 Rhv. Herbert Kurihara `Flori' orchid plants, more buds and flowers were produced under the black and red shadecloths than the other two shadecloths. The black and red shadecloths resulted in similar earlier starting dates of bud appearance (4 Aug.2005) and flower appearance (4 Aug. 2005). Whereas, under the blue shadecloth, bud appearance (18 Aug. 2005) and flower appearance (31 Aug. 2005) were delayed. Under the black and red shadecloths, flowering ended earlier (27 Oct. 2005). When flower production resumed, new spikes were produced earliest under the red shadecloth (1 Dec. 2005). No new spikes were produced under the black shadecloth. For M-10878 Colmanara Sphacetante `Evelyn' AM/AOS orchid plants, spike formation occurred later than with the M-10973 plants. Spike formation occurred on the same date for all shadecloth treatments (10 Feb. 2006), with similar numbers of spikes. Thus, photoselective shadecloths influenced flowering, but their effects varied with the orchid.

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Wen-Shaw Chen, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Wen-Huei Chen, and Yih-Shyan Lin

Gibberellin A3 (GA3: 1, 3, or 5 (μg/shoot), 6N-benzyladenine (BA: 1, 3, or 5 μg/shoot), or both were applied to the flowering shoots of a white hybrid Phalaenopsis orchid (Leda) when they were 2 to 3 cm (stage 1, no flower primordial long at high temperature (30 °C day/25 °C night). When flowering shoots were treated with GA3, alone, deformed flowers were more frequent with increasing GA3 concentrations. The occurrence of GA3-induced deformed flowers was prevented by BA at the same dose as GA3 when applied 4 days after GA3 treatment. BA (1, 3, or 5 μg/shoot) was also applied 4 days before (time 1) or 4 days after (time 2) GA3 (1 (μg/shoot) treatment for regulating plant characteristics. The application of BA at 1 or 5 μg/shoot to stage 1 flowering shoots at time 2 resulted in short internodes between florets, whereas BA application at time 1 had no effect. Simultaneously, BA at 1 or 5 μg/shoot applied at time 1 or time 2 to stage 2 (5 to 6 cm long, two- to three-flower primordia) flowering shoots also shortened internode length between florets as compared to GA3 alone. When a stage 1 flowering shoot was given BA (3 or 5, but not 1 μg/shoot) and then treated with GA3 4 days later, flower count was slightly reduced as compared to treating with (GA3 alone. However, a high dose of BA applied at time 1 or time 2 on stage 2 flowering shoots had no effect on flower count. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)], gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Min Lin, Terri W. Starman, Yin-Tung Wang, and Genhua Niu

Potted orchids, whose wholesale value reached $160 million in 2009, up 26% from the previous year ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2010 ), have become the most valued potted flowering plant in the United States. As a relatively new mass