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Justin A. Schulze and Ryan N. Contreras

at much lower concentrations than colchicine. Colchicine is typically applied at a rate of 0.1% to 1%, while in one recent example, where treatment was applied to the meristem in vivo, Jones et al. (2008) doubled the chromosomes of Rhododendron

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Shawna L. Daley, William Patrick Wechter, and Richard L. Hassell

grafted transplants commercially, the meristem is manually removed at the grafting stage ( Hassell et al., 2008 ). Meristematic regrowth is manually removed during graft healing, at the transplanting stages, and thereafter as needed ( Lee and Oda, 2003

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Seong Min Woo and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

development with shoot meristems at 3 weeks on induction. ( D ) Nonsynchronous development of numerous buds and shoots with meristems and leaf primordia at 4 weeks on induction medium. ( E ) Elongated embryo-like structure from leaf tissue after 4 weeks on

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Ludwika Kawa and August A. De Hertogh

Shoot apical meristems of Freesia ×hybrida Klatt `Rossini' reached the reproductive state after 3 weeks of precooling at 9C. Meristems isolated after 6 and 7 weeks of precooling showed the development of the initial four florets of the inflorescence.

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Marietta Loehrlein and Richard Craig

Floral ontogeny of two cultivars of Pelargonium ×domesticum L.H. Bailey, (regal pelargonium) `Duchess' and `Jennifer', was examined. Plants of both cultivars were grown together in a growth chamber at 15.5 °C with a photosynthetic photon flux of 10 mol·m-2·d-1. Meristems were examined at 5-day intervals over an experimental period of 170 days. The initial vegetative meristem was convex with leaf primordia initiated on either side in an alternate pattern. Early floral initiation was characterized by formation of two clefts on either side of the meristem. Between the clefts new meristems developed. Proliferation of meristems continued until numerous meristems were organized in a cluster arrangement at the apex of the shoot. New meristems lacked leaf primordia and would develop into flowers. Floral organ primordia on a floral meristem were initiated in a succession of four whorls: sepals, petals, androecia, and gynoecium.

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Alisson P. Kovaleski, Jeffrey G. Williamson, James W. Olmstead, and Rebecca L. Darnell

2011 because inflorescence bud initiation had already started at the first shoot collection date in 2011. Starting from the shoot apex, bud scales and leaf primordia were removed from individual buds until the apical and lateral meristems were visible

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A.D. Bryan, Z. Pesic-VanEsbroeck, J.R. Schultheis, K.V. Pecota, W.H. Swallow, and G.C. Yencho

Growers Association. We thank Marilyn Daykin for meristem-tip culture procedures, Lauren Upton and Jennifer Smith for assistance with greenhouse and field work, Charles W. Averre and Dennis Adams for assistance in harvest and evaluations, and Sandy Barnes

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Chen Xingwei, Thohirah Lee Abdullah, Sima Taheri, Nur Ashikin Psyquay Abdullah, and Siti Aishah Hassan

); Stage V, anthesis (100–101 d); Stage VI, senescence (102–103 d). Scale bar = 1 mm. The flower bud developed at the axillary bud at the leaf axil. The reproductive meristem or flower primordium was differentiated from the vegetative apical meristem or

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Steven McArtney, Duane Greene, Tory Schmidt, and Rongcai Yuan

; Aldrich and Fletcher, 1932 ; Harley and Masure, 1937 ; Harley et al., 1934 ). An effective chemical fruit thinning program reduces the number of fruit per tree or per spur, thereby increasing the probability that the terminal axillary meristem on a

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Choun-Sea Lin, Krishnan Kalpana, Wei-Chin Chang, and Na-Sheng Lin

shoots proliferation ( Kapoor and Rao, 2006 ; Nadgauda et al., 1990 ; Sood et al., 2002 ). However, it is very difficult to obtain bamboo reproductive tissues in the field. Lin and Chang (1998) used field-grown vegetative shoot meristems to induce