because the increased yield per unit of added N diminishes as total N supply approaches the yield-maximizing level (i.e., Law of Diminishing Returns) ( Bhattacharya, 2019 ; de Wit, 1992 ). In addition to N uptake efficiency issues, leaching is another
Shivani Kathi, Catherine Simpson, Alinna Umphres, and Greta Schuster
Catherine S. M. Ku and David R. Hershey
Single-pinched `Yours Truly' geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) were greenhouse grown in 15-cm diameter pots. They received constant liquid fertigation with a modified Hoagland solution #1 at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 strength. The 1.0 strength Hoagland solution contained 210 mg/L NO3-N and 31 mg/L P. Leaching fractions (LFs) were 0, 0.2 and 0.4. The total P applied via fertigation ranged from 33 mg at 0 LF and 0.25x Hoagland to 407 mg at 0.4 LF and 1.5x Hoagland. The leachate P concentration ranged from <5 mg/L to -60 mg/L. The P concentration in the recently matured leaves was in the acceptable range for all treatments. We were able to recover 90 to 99% of the applied P by analyzing the shoots, soilless medium, and leachate. Only 4% of the recovered P was in the leachate for plants receiving 0.5x Hoagland and a 0.2 LF. However, these plants were equal in yield to plants receiving higher fertigation rates and higher LFs.
Clyde W. Fraisse, Zhengjun Hu, and Eric H. Simonne
production (as a response to a low probability of leaching rainfall occurrence) and, conversely, if a high probability in leaching rain occurrence would justify an increase in fertilization recommendation. Ultimately, as illustrated in the wheat and canola
Rangjian Qiu, Yuanshu Jing, Chunwei Liu, Zaiqiang Yang, and Zhenchang Wang
when irrigated with saline water, with an adverse effect on fruit yield ( Ben-Gal et al., 2008 ; Munns, 2002 ). To alleviate the effects of salinity stress on plants, the application of extra water for the leaching of salts (e.g., Na + , Ca 2+ , and Mg
Jeff B. Million, Thomas H. Yeager, and Joseph P. Albano
irrigation demand. Beeson (2006) found that 20% MAD produced acceptable sweet viburnum growth. By minimizing leaching volume, ET-based irrigation has the potential to reduce nutrient leaching losses during production and, therefore, allow smaller quantities
J.P. Syvertsen, M.L. Smith, and B.J. Boman
Effects of salinized irrigation water on tree canopy and root growth, water use, foliar nutrition, and leaching losses below the rootzone were studied during a 2-year period using single tree lysimeters. Eighteen 6-year-old `Valencia' orange trees on either Carrizo citrange (CC) rootstock or sour orange (SO) rootstock were each transplanted into 7.8 m3 drainage lysimeters and irrigated with water having an electrical conductivity of 0.3, 1.6, or 2.5 dS m-1 from a 3:1 ratio of NaCl:CaCl2. Six additional trees (3 on each rootstock) were transplanted into soil without tanks. Trees outside the tanks were smaller, but nutritionally similar to the low salinity trees in lysimeters. Trees on CC were larger, had greater root densities, and were associated with less leaching of ions and nutrients into drainage water from the tanks than trees on SO. High salinity irrigation water reduced canopy growth and ET, but increased fibrous root dry weight. Trees on CC accumulated more Cl in leaves and in fruit juice than those on SO. Leaching loss of total N varied from 2-8% of that annually applied to trees, but up to 70% of the applied N and up to 80% of the applied K were leached from the blank tank with no tree. Salinized trees lost more N and K to drainage water, especially those on SO. Tree size, root density, and irrigation water quality can influence leaching losses beyond the rootzone.
Rachid Mentag, Isabelle Duchesne, and Jacques-André Rioux
The objective of this study was to determine the persistence and leaching of the herbicide oxadiazon in five substrates. The substrate mixtures consisted of the following: peatmoss, compost, and sand in the following proportions: 1:1:0, 3:3:2, 1:1:2, 1:1:6, and 0:0:1 in 5-liter containers. Rates of oxadiazon used were 4 and 8 kg a.i./ha on two separate split-split plots. Each experimental design had three factors: five substrates, four harvest times (24 h; 1, 2, and 3 months) and five soil depths (0–2, 2–4, 4–6, 6–8, 8– cm). Only herbicide persistence and leaching from the various substrates were investigated in this experiment; therefore, we did not remove plant material. Substrate oxadiazon residues were determined by gas chromatography analysis, and it was shown that leaching was more evident in media with a lower percentage of organic matter. In addition, oxadiazon did not leach below 4 cm in conventional substrate (1 peatmoss: 1 compost: 1 sand, respectively). The persistence of oxadiazon was affected by soil composition and herbicide persisted more in substrates with great percentage of organic matter.
Yingqian Lin, Alexa R. Wilson, and Pascal Nzokou
). For example, the incorporation of cover crops has proven to significantly reduce nitrate leaching in rubber tree plantations ( Schroth et al., 2001 ) and in cereal grass-based systems where they are reported to be more efficient in the uptake of
Eric J. Hanson and P.J. Breen
Foliar B sprays (500 ppm) applied in the fall to ‘Italian’ prune (Prunus domestica L.) trees had no effect on fruit set in a warm spring when set was high (average, 12.2%), but increased fruit set by 32% in a cool spring when set was low (3.2%). Fall B sprays increased flower B levels and decreased pistil length, but had no effect on the rate of pollen tube growth through styles in the cool spring. Calcium sprays (0.5 m) applied in the fall prior to the cool spring did not affect fruit set, pistil length, pollen tube growth or flower Ca or B levels. Flowers on cut branches forced indoors accumulated as much B as those on intact trees, indicating that flowers are supplied B from reserves in nearby branches. Simulated rain did not leach B from flower buds readily. Flowers blooming on excised branches in high relative humidity (86%) contained 13% less B per flower than flowers in low humidity (29%). The amount of set and B concentrations in flowers in a given year may influence the response to fall applied B.
Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Mark M. Alley
/estimate microbial activity. In addition to N immobilization, nutrient leaching in PTS has been proposed as a possible reason for the lower electrical conductivity and nutrient levels observed in PTS compared with peat-lite (PL) or PB during plant production