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Michael A. Schnelle and Sharon L. von Broembsen

A pilot IPM program has been implemented for the commercial greenhouse industry in Oklahoma. Key growers and cooperative extension agents have formed working IPM teams across the state. After administering a pretest to establish an educational baseline, IPM workshops have been presented to growers and agents. By use of these specialist-mediated workshops key growers have received sufficient training to implement a multi-phase IPM program. Establishment of proper cultural and management practices has occurred within the first six months of training. As a result, advanced growers are now implementing basic IPM practices and are anticipating the use of biological controls within this year. Due to the success of the pilot program, workshops will be offered statewide next year. Extension IPM bulletins are being written to facilitate the comprehensive effort. This pilot program should serve as a model and impetus for extension specialists and greenhouse grower organizations in other states to incorporate IPM strategies in their production and management practices.

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Wayne J. McLaurin

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Marsha A. Bower, L. Michele Quinn, and John M. Brown

Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of biological control measures to control Western Flower Thrips. Thrips population and preferred trap color were examined using sticky trap tapes in 5 fluorescent colors, orange, yellow, green, blue and pink. Results indicated that pink is more effective in attracting thrips than the traditional yellow or the newly acclaimed blue sticky traps on the market now. Studies were also conducted to determine if the entomogenous nematode (Steinernema feltiae) could invade and parasitize Western Flower Thrips, and which stage of the thrips life cycle was most susceptible to parasitization. Thrips were dissected and checked for nematode invasion at 24, 48 and 72 hours after inoculation. S. feltiae was found to invade the body cavity after 24 hours in the larval stage of Western Flower Thrips resulting in death.

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Marsha A. Bower, L. Michele Quinn, and John M. Brown

Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of biological control measures to control Western Flower Thrips. Thrips population and preferred trap color were examined using sticky trap tapes in 5 fluorescent colors, orange, yellow, green, blue and pink. Results indicated that pink is more effective in attracting thrips than the traditional yellow or the newly acclaimed blue sticky traps on the market now. Studies were also conducted to determine if the entomogenous nematode (Steinernema feltiae) could invade and parasitize Western Flower Thrips, and which stage of the thrips life cycle was most susceptible to parasitization. Thrips were dissected and checked for nematode invasion at 24, 48 and 72 hours after inoculation. S. feltiae was found to invade the body cavity after 24 hours in the larval stage of Western Flower Thrips resulting in death.

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M.L. Gleason, M.K. Ali, P.A. Domoto, D.R. Lewis, and M.D. Duffy

Integrated peat management (IPM) strategies for control of apple scab and codling moth (Cydia pomonolla) were compared with a traditional protestant spray program in an Iowa apple orchard over a 3-year period. IPM tactics for scab included a postinfection spray program and an integrated, reduced-spray program based on the use of demethylation inhibitor fungicides. Codling moth spray timing was determined by pheromone-trap captures and degree-day models. The IPM tactics resulted in an average of three fewer fungicide sprays and two fewer insecticide sprays than the protestant program. Neither yield, incidence of fruit scab, nor incidence of codling moth injury on fruit was significantly different among the two IPM treatments and the protestant treatment. A no-fungicide treatment had significantly lower yield and greater scab incidence than the other treatments. A partial budget analysis indicated that the treatment using the postinfection strategy was more costly per acre than the protectant program for orchards <20 acres, about equivalent in cost for 20 acres, but leas costly for 40 acres. A treatment incorporating the integrated, reduced-spray strategy was less costly than either postinfection or protestant strategies at orchard sizes from 5 to 40 acres. Return (total revenue - cost for control of primary scab and codling moth) per acre for the IPM strategies was somewhat lower than for the protestant program.

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Cynthia Haynes, Denise Ellsworth, Sarah Ellis Williams, Celeste Welty, and Karen Jeannette

integrated pest management (IPM) in their own gardening practices and in their educational outreach work. IPM is “a long-standing, science-based, decision-making process that identifies and reduces risks from pests and pest management related strategies. It

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Mary L. Flint and Joyce F. Strand

Over the past decade, the University of California Statewide IPM Project has been extending pest management information electronically to farmers, pest management consultants, landscapers, and home gardeners. During this session we will demonstrate the Project's web site (http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu) and a CD-ROM developed to assist horticulture advisors, Master Gardeners, retail nursery personnel, and others who help gardeners manage pest problems. We will discuss considerations in using these programs for extending information, keeping the programs up-to-date, and integrating them into educational programs. The CD-ROM covers 40 vegetables and tree fruits, allowing users to specify visual symptoms, describe a situation, or look at color photos, video images, or line drawings to help identify the problem. Twenty-five to 35 different pests are included for each crop, with thousands of photo images. An ornamentals module will be added in 1998. Once the problem is identified, the system provides screens to confirm pest identity, learn about biology and damage, and choose management practices. For instance, users can view several common natural enemies for a pest, look up the relative toxicity of pesticides, or get details on how to prune to avoid stressing a tree. Choices focus on methods to reduce pesticide use. The program is being developed with cooperators at Oregon State University and Washington State University, and with guidance of end users. The UC IPM web site includes information on biology and management of hundreds of insect, pathogen, weed, and nematode pests on 35 crops and in landscapes and gardens with thousands of color photos linked through hypertext. Other databases on the site include weather databases, pesticide use data, and phenology databases for pests.

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Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, María del Pilar Vera-Hoyos, Natalia Jiménez-Beltrán, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

Citrus Ind. 87 17 19 Stenberg, J.A. 2017 A conceptual framework for integrated pest management Trends Plant Sci. 22 759 769 Teixeira, N.C. Valim, J.O.S. Campos, W.G. 2017 Silicon-mediated resistance against specialist insects in sap-sucking and leaf

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Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, María del Pilar Vera-Hoyos, Natalia Jiménez-Beltrán, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

synthetic insecticides in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for ACP ( Khan et al., 2015 ; Santos et al., 2015 ; Weathersbee and McKenzie, 2005 ). Entomopathogenic fungi have shown promising results as eco-friendly biopesticides in the control of