The skin of `Elegant Lady' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] fruit turned black when exposed to 100 ppm ferrous sulfate solution. This color change appeared on the red and the yellow portions of the fruit. Microscopy of the skin showed blue-black pigment distribution in epidermal and hypodermal tissues. Some epidermal and hypodermal cells discolored immediately when exposed to ferrous solutions, but many cells turned black later. Some cells with anthocyanin pigments did not discolor. Chromic acid showed that tannic substances were distributed in the epidermal and hypodermal cells, and they likely are the main factor in black discoloration of peach fruit exposed to solutions containing Fe.
Osamu Arakawa and Joe M. Ogawa
Patrick J. Conner and Katherine L. Stevenson
To facilitate the breeding of scab-resistant pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] cultivars, more information is needed about the pathogenic variation of the causal organism, Cladosporium caryigenum (Ell. et Lang.) Gottwald (1982). This study examined the virulence patterns resulting from the field inoculations of 19 pecan cultivars with 12 monoconidial isolates from 8 pecan cultivars at 7 locations. The virulence pattern was different for each of the fungal isolates. Each isolate was virulent on some cultivars and avirulent on others. Most isolates were most virulent on the cultivar of their origin and one or a few other cultivars. Several cultivars were resistant to most of the tested isolates. The results indicate a large pool of differential and ephemeral resistance to scab resides in the pecan germplasm. Microscopic examination of developing lesions suggests that resistance is mediated by the speed of plant cell wall modifications that limit the growth of subcuticular hyphae. This information will be useful in the selection of cultivars with functionally different resistance genes for use in designing cultivar mixtures or in breeding programs.
Les Frey and Jules Janick
Shoot regeneration in carnation (Dianthus catyophyllus L.) was influenced by genotype, explant source, and plant growth regulator balance. Plants were regenerated from petals, calyxes, nodes, internodes, and leaves, but only petals, calyxes, and nodes were regenerative from all three cultivars examined (`Scania', `Improved White Sire', `Sandra'). Maximum proliferation was achieved with petals on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.05 μm TDZ and 0.5 μm NAA. Shoot initiation originated from cells near vascular regions and perhaps from epidermal cells in petals and via organogenic callus from other explants. There was no evidence of chimeral separation from petals or callus, but somaclonal variants (3.3%) were observed involving petal hue and plant dwarfness. Unstable color patterns were observed in tissue-cultured regenerants of `Scania' and `Improved White Sire' similar in type and frequency to propagules derived from cuttings; none were observed for tissue-cultured or cutting-derived plants of `Sandra'. Chemical names used: N-pheny1-N′-l,2,3 -thiadiazol-5-ylurea [thidiazuron (TDZ)]; 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NM).
Kalavathy Padmanabhan, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Roy C. Harrell, and Dennis B. McConnell
A comparison of external morphology captured via a computer vision system and a study of internal anatomy of sweetpotato somatic embryos identified five different major morphological variants among torpedo and cotyledonary stage embryos. These included 1) Perfect Type, 2) Near Perfect Type, 3) Limited/No Meristematic Activity Type, 4) Disrupted Internal Anatomy Type, 5) Proliferating Type. Perfect and Near Perfect types of somatic embryos were categorized as competent, while Limited/No Meristematic activity, Disrupted Internal Anatomy, and Proliferating types were categorized as noncompetent with respect to their conversion ability. Lack of organized shoot development in somatic embryos of sweetpotato was attributed to the following abnormalities: 1) lack of an organized apical meristem, 2) sparsity of dividing cells in the apical region, 3) flattened apical meristem, 4) multiple meristemoids and/or diffuse meristematic activity throughout the embryo. A morphological fate map of most of the torpedo and cotyledonary embryo variants was identified, which will be beneficial in synthetic seeding and transgenic research and development of sweetpotato.
Patrick J. Conner
A detached leaflet protocol was developed for the evaluation of resistance to Fusicladium effusum in a seedling pecan population segregating for resistance. Leaflets at half to full expansion were detached from seedling trees, sprayed with a conidial suspension (isolate De-Tif-3), placed in a polyethylene bag in a growth chamber, and evaluated microscopically 7 and 14 days after inoculation. The percentage germinated conidia producing subcuticular hyphae was the best determinant of susceptibility with genotypes producing more than 15% subcuticular hyphae considered susceptible. Leaflets at half expansion had higher percentages of subcuticular hyphae and gave a clearer separation between susceptible and resistant genotypes than leaflets at full expansion. An evaluation period of 14 days was preferable to 7 days to allow slower reacting genotypes to be better evaluated. The detached leaflet protocol was evaluated in contrasting environments and was found to be robust to differences in shading and leaflet wetness. Detached leaflet tests gave similar results to field inoculations but were superior in consistently detecting susceptible genotypes. This protocol will be useful in evaluating the inheritance of pecan leaf scab resistance in breeding progenies.
David M. Francis, Sheryl A. Barringer, and Robert E. Whitmoyer
Yellow shoulder disorder (YSD) is characterized by sectors of yellow or green tissue under the peel of uniform ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit. Tissues excised from sectors of fruit expressing YSD, from adjacent red sectors, and from mature green fruit were used to compare the ultrastructural alterations in cells and tissue affected by YSD and to determine whether the disorder is caused by delayed fruit maturation or by aberrant development. Cells from YSD sectors were smaller than those from both adjacent red-ripe tissue and mature green fruit. The smaller cells from the YSD sectors were at a different developmental stage than cells of the adjacent red-ripe tissue. Chromoplasts in red-ripe tissue were more advanced in development than those in YSD sectors or mature green fruit. Using the transition from chloroplast to chromoplast and the degradation of the middle lamella between adjacent cells as developmental markers, the maturity of tissue from YSD sectors appeared to be equal or greater than that of tissue from mature green fruit. However, cell enlargement, which takes place early in fruit development, was retarded in YSD sectors. Therefore, the ultrastructural features of YSD are not compatible with a delayed ripening model for this blotchy ripening disorder. These observations provide a basis for comparing YSD in uniformly ripening tomatoes with other blotchy ripening disorders.
Richard J. McAvoy, Bernard B. Bible, and Michael R. Evans
The early onset of bract necrosis in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex. Klotzch) is characterized by small dark-stained spots that precede the development of enlarged necrotic lesions. Electron micrographs of adaxial epidermal and subepidermal tissues with early symptoms of necrosis revealed large, electron-dense deposits in cell vacuoles. These spherical bodies resembled condensed tannins observed in the epidermal tissues of peach and apple fruit. Chemical analysis of bract tissues confirmed the presence of condensed tannins. Furthermore, there were higher concentrations of condensed tannin in bract samples with 2-mm-diameter lesions than in samples with lesions <0.5 mm (equivalent to catechin concentrations of 59 and 13 mg·g-1 fresh mass, respectively). No tannin bodies were observed in parallel samples of healthy-appearing bracts in which only trace concentrations of condensed tannins were measured (0.2 mg·g-1 fresh mass). The evidence suggests an association between condensed tannin accumulation in localized areas of the bract and the early appearance of bract necrosis symptoms.
Gaetano Distefano, Giuseppina Las Casas, Stefano La Malfa, Alessandra Gentile, Eugenio Tribulato, and Maria Herrero
Seedlessness is an important trait in the evaluation of commercial mandarin for fresh consumption. However, in the last decade, the presence of seeds in fruit of cultivars considered as seedless has become a problem in different citrus-growing areas because the commercial value is depreciated. Seeds have appeared concomitantly with the introduction of new cultivars that appear to be cross-compatible. To overcome this problem, different strategies have been explored, but a definitive answer is still elusive. The search for alternatives contrasts with how little is known about the basis of the problem: the pollen-pistil incompatibility reaction in mandarin, and the intercompatibility relationship between different cultivars. In this work, we characterized the pollen-pistil incompatibility in the two commonly grown mandarin cultivars Fortune and Nova, and evaluated the intercompatibility relationship between six cultivars with different genetic origins; these cultivars included Fortune (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. × Citrus reticulata Blanco), Nova [(Citrus paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata) × C. clementina), Comune Clementine (C. clementina), Avana apireno (C. reticulata), Primosole (Citrus unshiu Marcov. × C. reticulata), and Simeto (C. unshiu × Citrus deliciosa Ten.). Following the controlled hand pollination in the field, we evaluated pollen tube performance after self- and cross-pollination, as well as intercultivar compatibility by observing pollen tube growth. The results show the self-incompatibility of these cultivars with the pollen tube having been arrested in the style, which explains their seedless condition when planted in solid blocks. The study of intercompatibility indicates a different pollen tube behavior depending on the genotype, as well as on the cross combinations. These results provide a basis to evaluate self- and intercompatibility in citrus, and the effect of close planting of some cultivars.
Gene E. Lester and Michael A. Grusak
Muskmelon senescence is directly associated with a decline in hypodermal mesocarp membrane integrity and its Ca concentration, but infusing Ca into melons has been a problem. Fully ripened and abscised hybrid honeydew [Cucumis melo L. (Inodorus Group) `Honey Brew'] and netted muskmelon [Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group) `Explorer'] fruit were submerged (dipped) 20 min at 25 ± 3 °C in a solution containing a Ca-chelate, a Mg-chelate, a combination of both chelates, or no mineral chelate. Following 10 or 24 days of cold storage (4 °C for `Explorer' and 10 C for `Honey Brew'), fruit were analyzed for mineral content and various senescence-related parameters. Abscised `Honey Brew' fruit dipped in either Ca-chelate or (Ca+Mg)-chelate and abscised `Explorer' fruit dipped in (Ca+Mg)-chelate, followed by 10 days cold storage, had hypodermal mesocarp Ca concentrations of at least 6.0 mg·g-1 dry weight. Maintaining hypodermal mesocarp tissue Ca concentrations at this level during postharvest storage, especially for fully ripe `Honey Brew' fruit, maintained membrane integrity and fruit firmness, and extended storage life 2.4-fold (i.e., to 24 days). The senescence regulatory effect of postharvest Ca-chelate treatments on abscised `Explorer' was highly variable, compared to `Honey Brew', which appeared to be due to the surface netting interfering with movement of Ca into the hypodermal mesocarp. Thus, postharvest Ca-chelate application to abscised `Honey Brew' fruit could delay fruit senescence in commercial storage, and open up new markets for fully ripened honeydew melons.
Patrick J. Conner
A detached leaf screening technique was developed for studying specific interactions between pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] cultivars and isolates of the pecan scab fungus, Cladosporium caryigenum. Monoconidial isolates were obtained from leaf scab lesions on `Wichita', `Desirable', `Cape Fear', and `Elliot'. Each isolate was then inoculated onto detached leaves of each of the four cultivars and fungal growth was observed under the microscope after eight days. `Wichita', `Desirable', and `Cape Fear' isolates produced subcuticular hyphae at a much higher frequency when inoculated back onto the cultivar from which they were isolated in comparison to the other cultivars. The `Elliot' isolate was able to produce a high frequency of subcuticular hyphae when inoculated onto `Elliot' and `Cape Fear', but not when inoculated onto `Desirable' and `Wichita'. Field inoculations conducted with the `Wichita' and `Desirable' isolates validated the detached leaf protocol. The results obtained indicate that pecan scab is composed of multiple races with a high degree of specificity for host cultivars. A rapid whole-leaf staining system is presented which appears to have wide applicability to assessing fungal growth in leaves.