because there is little visible fruit expansion and is characterized by pit hardening. During Stage III, fruit growth results from expansion of the cells and the intercellular spaces, and the fruit ripen before harvest. Stage II is the period most often
Kylara A. Papenfuss and Brent L. Black
Pascal Nzokou and Paligwende Nikiema
hardening mechanism and produce an increase in cold-hardiness in the fall and a decrease in the spring ( Beuker et al., 1998 ; Jones and Cregg, 2006 ; Wisniewski et al., 2003 ). The process is initiated by the continuous exposure to temperatures below 5 °C
Josep Rufat, Agustí J. Romero-Aroca, Amadeu Arbonés, Josep M. Villar, Juan F. Hermoso, and Miquel Pascual
subsequently applied to the control group during pit hardening (beginning of July until the beginning of September), followed by full irrigation from the beginning of September to the end of October. The SDI strategy consisted of applying 70% of control
John McGrady and Phil Tilt
Transplant nutrient conditioning for desert cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) production has enhanced transplant shock recovery, earliness and increased yield; partial defoliation and traditional hardening may also be effective. `Snowcrown' seedlings fertilized with 50, 150 or 450 mg N 1-1 were clipped to remove 0, 45, 60 or 98% of their leaf area. High root-shoot ratios in the 98% defoliated plants may have resulted in elevated transpiration in new leaves but neither high N conditioning nor defoliation enhanced survival or increased yield. Seedlings raised with 100, 200 or 400 mg N 1-1 were hardened with 4 water/fertilizer withholding regimes prior to transplanting. Non-hardened transplants within each fertilizer regime outyielded hardened transplants. Use of sprinkler or furrow irrigation for day/night establishment of hardened or conditioned transplants will be evaluated.
Lu Zhang, Emilio Laca, Cara J. Allan, Narges M. Mahvelati, and Louise Ferguson
become the embryo (kernel) containing the cotyledons and the axis. Cotyledons are the edible nut meat. Pistachio nut growth has three stages: 1) hull and shell expansion that produces the final in-shell nut size; 2) thickening and hardening of the
Ali Akbar Ghasemi Soloklui, Ahmad Ershadi, and Esmaeil Fallahi
study were: 1) to determine cold hardiness of seven commercial Iranian pomegranate cultivars in different stages of the hardening cycle, from fall through winter; and 2) to study changes in carbohydrates and proline contents during acclimation and
Norman Lalancette, Daniel L. Ward, and Joseph C. Goffreda
coincides with the first stage of fruit development, which is characterized by rapid cell division ( Flore, 1994 ; Tukey, 1933 ). As fruit growth slows and approaches initiation of pit hardening toward the end of this stage, the rate of disease increase
Hard-to-cook and hard-shell are two textural defects associated with storage of legumes, as typified by the common bean. These defects can lead to failure to germinate, extended cooking times, reduced nutritional value, and economic loss throughout the food chain. Although these losses are predominate in tropical climates, beans stored in temperate areas also will harden eventually, depending on temperature and humidity. Hardened beans also often darken, causing further quality losses. Structurally, hard-shell is associated with the seedcoat and failure of water absorption, while hard-to-cook affects the cotyledons, rendering the cells unable to separate during cooking. Hardening of seedcoats during storage has been reported, and a mechanism based on oxidation and polymerization of phenolic compounds is suspected as being responsible, but few details of the hard-shell defect are known. The traditional theory used to explain the hard-to-cook defect is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate, rendering it unable to chelate divalent cations that then migrate to the middle lamella and participate in crosslinking reactions with demethylated pectins. More recent evidence points to a multiple mechanism of bean hardening, with metabolism of phenolic compounds and membrane deterioration also involved. Control of bean hardening has been attempted at all levels of bean production, processing, and consumption. At present, control of storage conditions, manipulation of agronomic factors, and improved cooking techniques seem to be the best strategies to reduce bean hardening.
Diana L. Lange and Arthur C. Camero
Postharvest shelf life (defined by visual quality) of fresh, greenhouse-grown sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) at 5 °C was only 3 to 4 d due to the appearance of chilling injury symptoms. Plants chill-hardened at 10 °C for 4 h daily (2 h at the end of the light period and 2 h at the beginning of the dark period) for 2 d, before harvesting and packaging, had ≈3 d longer postharvest life. Four- to 6-week-old plants were chill-hardened for 1 week at several periods during the day. Chill-hardening at the beginning of the day extended the average shelf life of cuttings from 4- to 5-week-old plants by 1 and 1.5 d, respectively. Shelf life either was decreased or not affected by the other periods of preharvest hardening. More importantly, postharvest chill-hardening of packaged sweet basil for 1 day at 10 °C in darkness before transfer to 5 °C increased average shelf life by 5 d. Good potential exists for postharvest chill-hardening of packaged sweet basil since this method is effective and convenient.
Todd C. Einhorn, Yan Wang, and Janet Turner
application of GA 3 occurs near the end of Stage II of fruit development, i.e., pit hardening, although a recent study demonstrated that GA 3 efficacy did not depend on fruit development within a 3-week period surrounding pit hardening ( Kappel and MacDonald