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G. Martínez, M.T. Pretel, M. Serrano, and F. Riquelme

Resistance (R) to preloaded gas diffusion was used to follow the evolution of R during cherimoya fruit maturation and senescence. Cherimoya ethane diffusion was linear and gave an R value of 2048 ± 167 s·cm-1 for preclimacteric fruit. R increased linearly during maturation, and significant differences were noted between fruit in which diffusion through the stem scar was or was not blocked with petroleum ielly.

Open access

Julian C. Crane and M. M. Nelson

Abstract

Hastened fruit maturation following MH application to apricot trees was found to be associated with MH-induced seed abortion. The time and degree to which premature abscission of seedless fruits occurred was related to time of resumption of shoot growth and to crop load. Fruits in which the seeds aborted early in the season grew like those containing seeds when competition between their growth and vegetative growth was reduced to a minimum.

Open access

Gary C. Marlow and Wayne H. Loescher

Abstract

Extraction and assay of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) throughout fruit maturation of 3 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars, watercore-resistant ‘Golden Delicious,’ occasionally susceptible ‘McIntosh’, and normally susceptible ‘Starkrimson,’ showed no relationship between susceptibility to watercore and extractable enzyme activity. There was, however, a relationship between increased SDH activity and onset of the climacteric as measured by ethylene and CO2 evolution, suggesting that SDH, like certain other enzymes, increases during maturation.

Open access

R. Hochberg, S. P. Monselise, and J. Costo

Abstract

Girdling followed by reopening of the girdle (late in June and July) increased fruit size on mature trees of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) while effects of 1 or 2 applications of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) superimposed in a factorial layout were marginal. Girdling caused some delay in fruit maturation as did the 2,4-D applications. Girdling caused no apparent damage to trees the following year.

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William J. Bramlage and Sarah A. Weis

Preharvest environmental conditions apparently determine susceptibility of apples to postharvest scald development. Cool temperature, as hours below 10C, can greatly reduce susceptibility, but greater than 30C appears to enhance it. These effects appear to interact, because a high-temperature episode can cause loss of some low-temperature benefit. Shading of fruit increases their scald susceptibility and preharvest light conditions, along with preharvest rainfall, appear to be factors in scald susceptibility in New England. Fruit maturation reduces scald susceptibility. We are constructing models of contributions of these variables to scald susceptibility of fruit grown under different environmental conditions, and in this the relative importance of these variables is being evaluated.

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Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Gene E. Lester, Noelia Dos-Santos, Juan Antonio Martínez, Juan Esteva, John L. Jifon, and Plácido Varó

Fruit cracking is an important disorder that can cause severe loss of marketable yield and revenue in the muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruit industry. The physiological and environmental factors causing cracking are poorly understood. Although generally considered a physiological disorder caused by fluctuating environmental conditions, current evidence indicates that this disorder also has a genetic as well as a genotype × environment component. Certain cultivars are more susceptible than others, but wide fluctuations in irrigation, temperature, and nutrition during late fruit maturation stages appear to predispose fruit to cracking. This article summarizes the current state of our understanding of the causes of fruit splitting in muskmelons.

Open access

Ross E. Byers and Frank H. Emerson

Abstract

Applications of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) to peach trees (Prunus persica(L.) Batsch) prior to the completion of pit hardening (stage II) resulted in the early onset of the final fruit swell (stage III) and hastened fruit maturity. Applications during stage I (initial swell) were ineffective. Succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH) applications made prior to the completion of stage II resulted in early fruit maturation. Ethephon and SADH in combination during stage II or in successive applications (SADH in stage I and ethephon in stage II) were more effective in the promotion of early fruit maturity than either material alone.

Open access

Eugene M. Kupferman and Wayne H. Loescher

Abstract

Mesocarp development of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Redhaven] as measured by fresh weight and size increase, progressed along a double sigmoid curve which was reflected in the activity of extractable wall-associated α- and β-nitrophenylgalactosidases. Enzyme activities, both on protein and dry weight basis, rose rapidly during early fruit development, leveled off, then again rose rapidly at maturation. There was more α-nitrophenylgalactosidase activity than β-nitrophenylgalactosidase activity throughout development. Increases in both galactosidases followed rather than preceded increases in size. The final increases were, however, well correlated with fruit maturation.

Open access

Amos Blumenfeld and Gazit Shmuel

Abstract

The seed influences rate of growth, size, shape and maturation of avocado fruits. Seeded fruits are 8-10 times larger than seedless ones and contain more and larger cells. The growth pattern of seeded and seedless fruits is similar from June until maturation, when growth rate of seeded fruits decreases. Fruit maturation is characterized by rapid accumulation of oil in the mesocarp, preceded by shriveling of the seed coats, and the discontinuation of the seeds’ influence on fruit growth. The role of the seed in the development of avocado fruit is discussed.

Open access

Arazdordi Toumadje, Julian C. Crane, and Adel A. Kader

Abstract

Respiration rate of whole ‘Kerman’ pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit increased progressively during seed growth and development and gradually declined after the completion of seed growth. Blank (seedless) fruit, on the other hand, respired at a constant rate which was 5 to 6 times lower than that of fruit with seeds. There was no indication of a climacteric peak in respiration of fruit with seeds. Ethylene evolution from seeded fruit was not significantly different from that of blank fruit. Constant low levels of ethylene were maintained throughout the period of shell and hull dehiscence, as well as fruit maturation, indicating that this hormone is probably not involved in those processes.