Transpiration, respiration, dry weight gain, and water accumulation were measured to quantify the total carbon balance, total water utilization, carbohydrate cost for fruit growth, and water use efficiency in developing fruit of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf). Rate of net carbon loss and net water loss (mg g-1FW hr-1) both decreased during fruit development. On a whole fruit basis, total carbon demand was reduced during the period of peak expansion, then increased rapidly during fruit maturation. In contrast, whole fruit rates of water loss and water utilization (loss plus accumulation) peaked at about 100 days after anthesis, then decreased toward fruit maturation. Carbohydrate cost for fruit growth was greatest (3.49 g sucrose g-1DW) at the early stage of fruit development (immediately following anthesis), whereas water use efficiency peaked (193 mg DM g-1 H2O) at the final stage of fruit development. The thickness of albedo and pectin content in fruit may contribute to the observed water conservation. Total estimated carbon cost of grapefruit development indicates approximately 120 g of sucrose would be necessary for production of a 450 g fruit (77 g DW) at 22 C.
Tzu-Bin Huang and Karen E. Koch
I.J. Warrington, T.A. Fulton, E.A. Halligan, and H.N. de Silva
Container-grown `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Braeburn', `Fuji' and `Royal Gala' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees, on Malling 9 (M.9) rootstock, were subjected to a range of different maximum/minimum air temperature regimes for up to 80 days after full bloom (DAFB) in controlled environments to investigate the effects of temperature on fruit expansion, final fruit weight, and fruit maturation. Fruit expansion rates were highly responsive to temperature with those at a mean of 20 °C being ≈10 times greater than those at a mean of 6 °C. All cultivars exhibited the same general response although `Braeburn' consistently showed higher expansion rates at all temperatures compared with lowest rates for `Golden Delicious' and intermediate rates for both `Delicious' and `Fuji'. The duration of cell division, assessed indirectly by measuring expansion rate, appeared to be inversely related to mean temperature (i.e., prolonged under cooler conditions). Subsequently, fruit on trees from the coolest controlled temperature treatment showed greater expansion rates when transferred to the field and smaller differences in fruit size at harvest than would have been expected from the measured expansion rates under the cool treatment. Nonetheless, mean fruit weight from warm postbloom treatments was up to four times greater at harvest maturity than that from cool temperature treatments. Postbloom temperature also markedly affected fruit maturation. Fruit from warm postbloom temperature conditions had a higher soluble solids concentration, more yellow background color, lower flesh firmness, and greater starch hydrolysis than fruit from cooler temperatures.
Three years of experiments were carried out with both Delicious fruit on trees and fruit skin discs. There were two peaks of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity during fruit development. One occurred in the fruitlet stage and the other in the fruit enlargement stage. The first peak was coincident with anthocyanin synthesis in fruitlet but the second peak did not correlate with pigment formation during maturation. In fact, PAL activity decreased gradually during fruit maturation and coloration. Treatment with L-α-aminooxy-B-phenylpropionic acid, a specific PAL inhibitor, decreased PAL activity in fruit and in skin discs 57% and 80%, respectively, but did not change anthocyanin content. Cycloheximide inhibited anthocyanin synthesis by 76% in fruit and 85% in skin discs, but did not significantly inhibit PAL activity. On the other hand, PAL activity was positively correlated with concentrations of simple phenols which were direct products of PAL and precursors for synthesis of lignin, anthocyanin and other flavonoid.
Eric A. Curry and John J. Burke
Development of valid temperature-based models of physiological processes such as seed germination, bud development, vegetative growth, fruit development, or fruit maturation, requires a parameter to link temperature with plant metabolism. The Thermal Kinetic Window (TKW) concept uses the temperature characteristics of an enzyme kinetic parameter, the Michaelis constant (Km) as indicators of metabolic efficiency. Recently, Burke3 has shown that the temperature dependence of the rate and magnitude of the reappearance of photosystem II (PSII) variable fluorescence following illumination corresponded with the optimal temperature described by the TKW for several plant species. The present study investigated the use of the temperature sensitivity of PSII fluorescence in the identification of temperature optima of apple cultivars and rootstocks. 3Burke, J.J. 1990. Plant Physiol. 93:652-656.
David M. Hunter and John T.A. Proctor
Paclobutrazol applied as a soil drench at 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 μg a.i./g soil reduced vegetative growth of `Seyval blanc' grapevines (Vitis spp.). At all rates, there was a reduction in internode length, while at rates higher than 10 μg a.i/g soil, there was also a reduction in node count. Leaf area produced following treatment declined in response to increasing rates, but specific leaf weight increased. Treatment with paclobutrazol delayed senescence and increased the retention of basal leaves that were nearly fully expanded at the time of treatment. Paclobutrazol application had no effect on fruit set or berry size, but the reduction in vegetative growth following treatment decreased the ability of the vine to supply sufficient photoassimilates for fruit maturation. Chemical name used: ß[(4-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-a-(1,1-dimethylethyl)1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Yufei Xu*, Eric Hanson, James Flore, and Wayne Loescher
In Michigan boron (B) deficiencies in sour cherry have resulted in routine use of B sprays to enhance fruit set and increase fruit yield. However, field observations indicate that high B levels are associated with premature softening, making fruit unacceptable for processing. Our fertilization studies show that fruit B levels are higher, but B generally has little or no effect on fruit size, maturity, color, or pull force. However, at some locations, B applications increase the number of soft fruit, especially when harvest is delayed well after the optimum maturity date (as indicated by pull force). B-induced yield increases can be achieved without inducing excessive fruit softening by careful monitoring of fruit maturation and prompt harvest. Leaf and fruit B levels will be presented.
J.H. Keithly, H. Kobayashi, H. Yokoyama, and H.W. Gausman
Application of DCPTA as a pregermination seed treatment (DCPTA plants) increased the seedling vigor, relative growth rate, harvestable yield, and yield quality of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cvs. UC82, VF6203, H100). When compared with controls, the growth rates of roots and shoots of 30 μm DCPTA plants were increased significantly (P = 0.05) during seed germination and midexponential growth. At fruit harvest, greenhouse-grown 30 μm DCPTA plants showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in leaf, stem, and root dry weight compared with that of controls. Improvements in the uniformity of fruit maturation significantly increased the harvestable fruit yields of greenhouse-grown DCPTA plants compared with that of controls. The total soluble solids (oBrix), glucose, fructose, and carotenoid contents of red-ripe fruits harvested from greenhouse- and field-grown DCPTA plants were significantly increased compared with controls. Chemical name used: 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)triethylamine (DCPTA).
Gene E. Lester
Plasma membrane (PM) from hypodermal-mesocarp tissues of muskmelon fruits (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) were compared to the electrolyte leakage changes of the same tissue during maturation and storage at 4 or 24C. During fruit maturity and storage, leakage of the hypodermal-mesocarp tissue increased, which is coincident with increased total sterol: total phospholipid ratios and increased phospholipid fatty acid saturation index of the PM. ATPase activity, a marker for the PM, indicated that the PM increased in buoyant density from 1.13 g.cm-3 to 1.14 g.cm-3 during maturity and ATPase activity peaked with fruit maturation. ATPase activity decreased with 10 days postharvest storage and was less at 24C vs. 4C, which was coincident with increased hypodermal-mesocarp electrolyte leakage. Biochemical changes within the sterol and phospholipid matrix of the PM are suggested to contain the processes capable of altering fruit membrane permeability and subsequent muskmelon fruit storage life.
Thomas J. Zabadal and Thomas W. Dittmer
Sunlight-exposed clusters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay at twelve positions on a N-S oriented, single curtain trellis were monitored for temperature to determine their patterns of heat summation and diurnal temperature.
Diurnal patterns of temperature differed greatly among these clusters. These differences reflected the solar insolation on individual clusters. Point-in-time measurements among clusters during mid-day varied as much as 12°C. 24-hour heat summation for these clusters revealed little difference among them. Heat summations for periods of daylight or solar insolation indicate more heat accumulation for clusters on the top of the trellis, at ground level and on the west side of the trellis than on the east side of the trellis. These differences might be usefully exploited when training vines to maximize aspects of fruit maturation in relatively cool climates.
Paul J. Croft, Mark D. Shulman, and Roni Avissar
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ericaceae Ait.) stomatal conductivity (SC) was investigated in the field to examine plant response as a function of weather conditions. Measurements were made during fruit maturation on 14 days between 0540 and 1710 h r, as weather conditions permitted. SC ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 cm·s-1 and was much lower than for most other crops. Scatter plots of SC vs. leaf temperature by day indicated only a weak linear relationship. When the data were stratified by time of day and by clear and overcast skies, several significant Pearson correlation coefficients suggested a stomatal response. The findings, when combined with current knowledge of the physical structure of cranberry stomata, suggest that cranberries behave as xeromorphic plants.