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Youzhi Chen, John M. Smagula, Walter Litten, and Scott Dunham

In a managed field of native Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. clones, the effect of fall foliar sprays of B at 345 g·ha-1 and/or Ca at 3,450 g·ha-1 in remedying tissue deficiency of B varied among 12 clones, as seen in pollen germinability and on individual stems as seen in flower number, fruit set, and number of harvestable berries. With Ca applied alone, increased berry size did not overcome yield reduction due to fewer flowers and berries per stem. Berry diameter and mass correlated better to number of seeds of germinable size than to total number of seeds. Pollen germination averaged 17.4% on stigmata from untreated clones, and all three treatments (B, Ca, B + Ca) increased that average by 8%. More seeds per berry with the B-alone treatment implies more ovules fertilized when B deficiency is remedied. No relation was found between in vitro and in vivo pollen germination.

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid, and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This investigation studied the effects of foliar sprays of urea (0.5%), a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulfates from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively, and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm), as well as number and date of sprays, on the number of fruit/tree, average fruit weight, and yield/tree in kilograms. Spraying `Washington' navel orange trees with urea and/or micronutrients significantly increased the number of fruit/tree, average fruit weight, and yield/tree expressed in kilograms. However, the treatment including both of them was the most effective in 1991–92 and 1992–93. Application of GA3 and NAA effectively increased the value of the three traits compared with the control; however, spraying the trees with NAA was responsible for higher fruit numbers, while GA3 was more effective in increasing fruit weight. Two sprays of urea, micronutrients, and NAA (or GA3), the first applied 3 weeks before flowering and the second 4 weeks after fruit set, were more effective than spraying once at any of the two dates in producing high numbers of fruit/tree, average fruit weight and yield per tree by weight.

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid, and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This part of the investigation studied the effect of foliar spraying with urea (0.5%); a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulphates (from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively); and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm); as well as number and date of sprays on fruit volume, percentage of pulp, juice acidity, TSS, reducing and total sugars, TSS: acid ratio, and vitamin C content. The results showed that Washington Navel orange trees receiving urea, micronutrients, or both gave fruit with significantly larger volume compared with the control, but the treatment including both resulted in the highest values for fruit volume in 1991–92 and 1992–93 seasons. GA3 sprays gave the highest fruit volume, followed by NAA, while the water spray (control) gave the lowest values for this trait. Two sprays of urea, micronutrients, and GA3 resulted in the highest fruit volume in 1991–92 and 1992–93 seasons. The effect of different treatments on pulp percentage were slight and mostly insignificant in the two experimental seasons. Spraying urea, micronutrients, or both slightly reduced juice acidity and increased TSS, sugars, and vitamin C contents, as well as TSS: acid ratio; however, both of them together was more effective in this respect. Conversely, either GA3 or NAA caused an appreciable increase in acid content in the juice, but decreased the other determined constituents, except vitamin C, which increased.

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid, and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This part of the investigation studied the effect of foliar spraying with urea (0.5%); a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulphates (from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively); and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm); as well as number and date of sprays on fruit pedicel pectin content, some flowering aspects, and fruit set and drop percentages. Applying urea, micronutrients, or both significantly increased pectin content in the pedicels of the attached and dropped fruit. The treatment including urea plus micronutrients resulted in the highest values for pectin in fruit stem. Either GA3 or NAA significantly raised pectin content over that of the water-sprayed control. However, NAA was more effective in increasing pectin content in fruit pedicel. The overall treatment including urea and micronutrients with GA3 or NAA was the most effective in producing the highest percentage of leafy inflorescence in 1991–92 and 1992–93 seasons. Any nutrition treatment was significantly effective in increasing fruit set and reducing fruit drop compared with the water-sprayed control; however, the treatment including all sprayed nutrients was the most effective. Application of GA3 or NAA significantly increased fruit set percentage and reduced June and preharvest fruit drop; however, NAA was more effective in reducing fruit drop than GA3.

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid, and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This investigation was carried out during the experimental seasons of 1991–92 and 1992–93 on 25-year-old `Washington' navel orange trees grown in an orchard at Beni Suef (≈120 km south of Cairo). This part of the investigation studied the effect of foliar spraying urea (0.5%), a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulfates from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively, and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm) on some vegetative aspects and leaf content of some macro- and micronutrients. The investigation also included the effect of number and date of spraying (one spray 3 weeks before flowering, one spray 4 weeks after fruit set, and two sprays at the two dates) on the studied traits. The results showed that the overall treatments included two sprays of urea, micronutrients (Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu) and NAA at 10 ppm achieved the highest values for average leaf area and shoot diameter in both seasons. The treatment on shoot length was more effective when GA3 replaced NAA. Leaf analysis showed that the application of any of the nutrients was responsible for a pronounced increase in leaf content of that element, but reduced the contents of others. Growth regulator treatments lowered leaf content of the determined elements. However, all other treatments in this study reduced leaf content of P and K.

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Eybar Rojias

Flowering of `Tahiti' lime/C. volkameriana Pasq. was studied in response to several levels of hydrogen cyanamide sprayed on isolated terminal twigs of 3- year-old plants growing under field conditions. The study was performed in the central region of Venezuela at 180-m altitude (lat. 9°43'N). Hydrogen cyanamide had significant effects on floral and total activity, and on generative, mixed, floral, and total shoot flux density, as well as on defoliation of sprayed twigs. Conversely, it did not show any significant effect on vegetative development, either as activity or shoot flux density.

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Terri Woods Starman

Single and multiple sprays of uniconazole at 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg·liter-1 were compared with daminozide sprays at 2500 mg·liter-1 applied twice for height control of Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat.) `Puritan' and `Favor'. A single uniconazole spray at 20 mg·liter-1 applied 2 weeks after pinching or two uniconazole applications at 10 mg·liter-1 applied 2 and 4 weeks after pinching were as effective as daminozide for reducing height. Drenches of uniconazole at 0, 0.025, 0.05, or 0.10 mg a.i./pot were compared with ancymidol drenches at 0.45 mg a.i./pot for controlling height of `Bright Golden Anne'. Although ancymidol was more effective, a 0.10-mg uniconazole drench adequately reduced height.

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Anil P. Ranwala, Garry Legnani, and William B. Miller

Several experiments were conducted to find effective ways of utilizing gibberellin4+7 (GA4+7) and benzyladenine (BA) to prevent leaf chlorosis during greenhouse production of Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) while minimizing the undesirable side effects on stem elongation. On an absolute concentration basis, GA4+7 was much more effective than BA in preventing leaf chlorosis. Excessive levels of GA4+7, however, tended to cause stem elongation. When applied at around the visible bud stage, if the foliage was well covered with the spray solution, 25 mg·L-1 of GA4+7 was adequate for maximum protection against leaf chlorosis. Increasing the GA4+7 concentration above 25 mg·L-1 gave no additional benefit on leaf chlorosis. Two possible modes of GA4+7 uptake during a foliar spray application (absorption through leaves and stems, and root uptake of the extra run-off) were studied in terms of their relative contribution to leaf chlorosis and stem elongation. Although both modes of uptake prevented leaf chlorosis, foliar uptake was much more effective than root uptake. However, GA4+7 taken up by the roots contributed mainly to stem elongation. When sprayed to leaves on only the lower half of the plant, a 10-mL spray of either 25 or 50 mg·L-1 of each GA4+7 and BA was enough for complete protection against leaf chlorosis. Increasing volumes had no additional benefit on leaf chlorosis, but increased the chances of unwanted stem elongation.

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James L. Gibson and Brian E. Whipker

Twenty-six ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) cultivars were grown in 8-inch (20.8-cm) diameter pots during Fall 1998 to classify their foliage traits and determine their response to the plant growth regulator (PGR) daminozide. Cultivar vigor was classified by height. Foliage characteristics were described and cultivars of ornamental cabbage, notched ornamental kale, and curly ornamental kale were selected for retail or wholesale markets based on the shortest number of days until a significant center color change, the largest center color diameter, and attractive foliage characteristics. Two cultivars treated with 2,500 ppm (mg·L-1) daminozide and eight cultivars treated with 5,000 ppm were significantly smaller in height compared to nontreated plants. Plants were treated 6 weeks after sowing, and the response to the PGRs may have been diminished by the age of the plant. Therefore, to further investigate PGR efficacy, seven outstanding cultivars selected in 1998 were treated with 5,000 ppm daminozide or 5 ppm uniconazole 14 days after potting (4 weeks after sowing) in Fall 1999. Greater control was observed with daminozide at 5,000 ppm in 1999 with a 13% smaller plant height as compared to 9% in 1998, when compared to the nontreated control. For greater height control, PGR applications to ornamental cabbage and kale should be applied 4 weeks after sowing.