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Nihat Guner, Zvezdana Pesic-VanEsbroeck, Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, and Todd C. Wehner

). Chemical control of the vectors is not usually efficient to control the disease. Cultural controls such as treatment with mineral oil sprays, light-reflective surfaces, and cross-protection with weak PRSV-W isolates show limited effectiveness and require

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Lavesta C. Hand, Wheeler G. Foshee III, Tyler A. Monday, Daniel E. Wells, and Dennis P. Delaney

–3 weeks ( Terry et al., 1997 ). A blend of chemical and cultural controls is often needed to move beyond the critical weed-free period in watermelon ( Monday et al., 2015 ). Multiple PRE herbicides have been evaluated for use in watermelon and compared

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Michael A. Schnelle and Lyn A. Gettys

speakers fielded diverse questions from workshop participants; topics included chemical and cultural control measures, breeding efforts, and strategies that can be used to educate academics, green industry leaders and, ultimately, end-user clientele on

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Annelle W.B. Holder, Winston Elibox, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

, 2007 ). Cultural control methods have proven to be inadequate in controlling BLS and it is generally believed that breeding for resistance is the only means of sustainable management of the disease. Since the first report in 1992, there have not been

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Eva García-Méndez, David García-Sinovas, Maximo Becerril, Antońeta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, Anselmo Martínez-Treceño, Steven A. Fennimore, Carmen Soria, Juan J. Medina, and Jóse M. López-Aranda

with other more specific pesticides (like specific herbicides) and cultural controls. Many factors such as weather, soils, and rotational crops contribute to inconsistencies in weed control and runner yields at high-elevation nurseries. Methyl bromide

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Xiaoya Cai, Terri Starman, Genhua Niu, and Charles Hall

europea L.) plants. Conclusion Drought stress caused reductions in plants’ growth, which could be used as a cultural control method for excessive plant growth ( Bailey and Whipker, 1998 ). It is important for commercial greenhouse growers to predict plant

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Michael C. Long, Stephen L. Krebs, and Stan C. Hokanson

favored by overcast or shady conditions, high humidity, and low rainfall ( Coyier, 1986 ). Cultural control can be achieved by growing plants in exposed locations and using overhead rather than drip irrigation ( Basden and Helfer, 1995 ; Galle, 1987

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Stephanie E. Burnett and Marc W. van Iersel

are drought-stressed ( Eakes et al., 1991 ; van Iersel and Nemali, 2004 ). Because drought reduces plant growth, it is used as a cultural control method for excessive plant growth ( Bailey and Whipker, 1998 ). Growers desire shorter, more compact

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Ryan J. Hayes, Karunakaran Maruthachalam, Gary E. Vallad, Steven J. Klosterman, and Krishna V. Subbarao

, because current cultural control methods are cost-prohibitive, potentially damaging to the environment, or of limited feasibility ( Subbarao et al., 1997 ). Verticillium dahliae of lettuce exists as two pathogenic races (Race 1 and Race 2). The Batavian

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Kathleen Demchak

et al., 2007 ; Jett, 2007 ; Lamont et al., 2006 ). Pesticide usage may be markedly decreased, however, and biological or cultural controls can play a significant role in pest management ( Heidenreich et al., 2007 ; Lamont et al., 2006 ). Less