Consumers in five U.S. markets evaluated photographs of geranium plants with regard to purchase likelihood. Photographic images were colored electronically to produce uniform geranium plants with five flower colors (pink, white, red, lavender, and blue) and three leaf variegation patterns (dark zone, white zone, and no zonal pattern). Photographs were mounted on cards with five selected price points ranging from ($1.39 to $2.79). We randomly generated an orthogonal array, partial-factorial design for consumers to rate a reduced number of choices. Consumers shopping in cooperating garden centers located in Dallas, Texas; Montgomery, Ala.; Athens, Ga.; Charlotte, N.C.; and Wilmington, Dela., rated 25 photographs on the basis of their likelihood to purchase the plants shown. Conjoint analysis revealed that customers in the Georgia garden center placed the highest proportion of their decision to buy on leaf variegation (29%), while customers in the Alabama outlet placed the most emphasis on price (46% of the decision). Shoppers in Texas valued flower color most highly (58% of their decision to buy). Demographic characteristics and past purchase behavior also varied widely, suggesting diverse marketing strategies for geraniums.
Bridget Behe, Robert Nelson, Susan Barton, Charles Hall, Steve Turner, and Charles Safley
Chris Frank, Eric Simonne, Robert Nelson, Amarat Simonne, and Bridget Behe
Most bell peppers produced and consumed in the United States are green in color. However, red, yellow, orange, brown, white, black, and purple bell pepper are also available. While bell pepper consumption has been increasing in the past 10 years, limited information is available on how color, retail price, and vitamin C influence consumer behavior. A conjoint analysis of 436 consumer responses showed that color (75%) and retail price (23%) were more important than vitamin C (3%) in shaping consumer purchase decision. Six consumer segments were identified. Segments II to V preferred green bell pepper, while segments I and VI favored the orange and brown color, respectively. Demographic variables were not good predictors of segment membership. However, previous purchases of bell pepper significantly affected the probability of membership in at least one segment. These results suggest that while green is the preferred color, a market exists for orange, red, and yellow peppers. Results on price sensitivity suggest that profits at the retail level are likely to increase by increasing the price of green peppers, and decresing that of the colored ones.
K.M. Kelley, B.K. Behe, J.A. Biernbaum, and K.L. Poff
Two surveys were conducted to determine the importance of characteristics of containers of edible flower which could be sold to consumers in retail outlets. Self-selected participants at Bloomfest at Cobo Hall in Detroit, Mich., were assigned to one group that rated the importance of attributes such as edible flower color of Viola × wittrockiana `Accord Banner Clear Mixture', color combinations, container size, and price of the container. Participants assigned to a second group rated color, color combinations, and size. Flower color was allocated the most points in the purchasing decision (63% for the first group and 95% for the second group), with a mixture of all three colors (blue, yellow, and orange), proving to be the most desirable. Responses were subjected to Conjoint Analysis (SPSS Inc., Chicago), which resulted in the formation of three groups of customer segmentation. The groups were labeled “Likely Buyer” who had eaten and purchased edible flowers before and rated characteristics of edible flowers favorably; “Unlikely Consumer” who had eaten edible flowers before and had rated characteristics of edible flowers unfavorably; and “Persuadable Garnishers” who had not eaten edible flowers before, but were very likely to purchase edible flowers for a garnish for a meal.
Alicia Rihn, Hayk Khachatryan, Benjamin Campbell, Charles Hall, and Bridget Behe
et al. (2014) . In this manuscript, we assessed consumers’ perceived value of indoor foliage plants by examining consumer preference for various VOC removal rates, production methods, and origins. Specifically, rating-based conjoint analysis was
Amy Fulcher, Diana R. Cochran, and Andrew K. Koeser
willing to pay more for biodegradable containers than for plastic ones? Evidence for hypothetical conjoint analysis and nonhypothetical experimental auctions J. Agr. Appl. Econ. 42 757 772
Candi Ge, Chanjin Chung, Tracy A. Boyer, and Marco Palma
changes ( Russo, 2011 ; Vidal et al., 2013 ), the use of eye-tracking devices can help to record respondents’ eye movements during the survey, and thus reveal the existence of ANA ( Chavez et al., 2018 ). Including attention in conjoint analysis increases
Andrew Jeffers, Marco Palma, William E. Klingeman, Charles Hall, David Buckley, and Dean Kopsell
purchasing decisions, we can design a choice experiment using conjoint analysis, sometimes called tradeoff analysis, which is a survey technique allowing multiple product attributes and attribute levels to be analyzed simultaneously. The process forces
, medium, low), lycopene content (high, medium, low), and production method (conventional, organic) and rated their preferences. Conjoint analysis of their responses revealed that price consistently was the most important factor affecting their purchase
preferred price ranges for the products. Elderberry Juice Has Market Potential in the U.S. Mohebalian et al. (p. 556) identified niche markets in the U.S. based on their preferences for elderberry juice. Consumer preferences were elicited using conjoint
Bridget K. Behe, Benjamin L. Campbell, Charles R. Hall, Hayk Khachatryan, Jennifer H. Dennis, and Chengyan Yue
characteristics of nine consumer segment developed from 2511 U.S. and Canadian participants of an online survey. z In the conjoint analysis, plant type comprised 30% of the intention to purchase followed by origin of production (21%) ( Table 3 ). Price (16