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Hiroaki Ito, Takahiro Hayashi, Masaki Hashimoto, Katsuro Miyagawa, Saori Nakamura, Youichi Mizuta, and Susumu Yazawa

several years. However, preserved flowers do not retain their natural color. Flowers are artificially stained by soaking in polyethylene glycol with synthetic dyes. It is difficult to stain sepals, stems, and leaves separately from petals, thus multicolor

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Jianjun Li, Xiaoya Lian, Chenglin Ye, and Lan Wang

, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States ( Shang et al., 2011 ). The color is considered to be an important indicator in measuring ornamental value and offers a basis for plant classification ( Zhang et al., 2012 ). The flower color is

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Ninghang Wang, Chao Zhang, Sainan Bian, Pengjie Chang, Lingjuan Xuan, Lijie Fan, Qin Yu, Zhigao Liu, Cuihua Gu, Shouzhou Zhang, Yaling Wang, and Yamei Shen

Magnolia is an original genus belonging to Magnoliaceae and has a long history of cultivation in China given its beauty and fragrance. Therefore, Magnolia has been widely used in garden landscapes for its high ornamental value. Flower color is

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Ying Ma, Xinduo Li, Zhanying Gu, and Jian’an Li

color. The leaves are fleshy, alternately arranged, cylindrical, green, and do not have a superficial white powder coating. Potted sedum plants are used for ornamental purposes. The species is also used in landscaping rock gardens, roof gardens, and as a

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Xiuxiu Sun, Elizabeth Baldwin, Mark Ritenour, Robert Hagenmaier, and Jinhe Bai

, temples, tangelos, and ‘K-Early’ citrus had color problems. The fruits were typically degreened and then treated with a dye, CR2, to adjust the color, which is the only dye allowed for this purpose ( Hall, 2013 ). Previously, research in this laboratory

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Omaira Avila-Rostant, Adrian M. Lennon, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

Flower color in plants is determined by pigments such as aurones, anthocyanins, and carotenoids ( Davis and Schwinn, 1997 ; Schijlen et al., 2004 ). Anthocyanins, the major pigment in Anthurium andraeanum (Hort), are the product of flavonoid

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Yiguang Wang, Chao Zhang, Bin Dong, Yaohui Huang, Zhiyi Bao, and Hongbo Zhao

flower and fruit colors of plants, and they control the color change of plant tissues from pink, red, and purple to blue ( Grotewold, 2006 ). Carotenoids are accessory components for photosynthesis and play important roles in photoprotection. In addition

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David Gopaulchan, Adrian M. Lennon, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

Anthurium has emerged as a popular tropical ornamental in international markets. The cut flower consists of a brilliantly colored modified leaf called the spathe with a protruding, cylindrical inflorescence called the spadix. Spathe color is one of

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Haejeen Bang, Angela R. Davis, Sunggil Kim, Daniel I. Leskovar, and Stephen R. King

Flesh color is an important fruit quality trait that helps to determine attractiveness and is indicative of the potential health benefits of watermelon. The coloration of watermelon flesh is attributable to its carotenoid composition and content

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Patrick J. Conner and Dan MacLean

profile of muscadine grapes, especially the presence of ellagic acid ( Lee and Talcott, 2004 ), are driving renewed interest in processed muscadine products. Use of muscadines as a wine and juice grape is hampered by the poor color stability of these